IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Effect of Battery Electric Vehicles on Greenhouse Gas Emissions in 29 European Union Countries


  • José Alberto Fuinhas

    (Centre for Business and Economics Research, Faculty of Economics, University of Coimbra, 3004-512 Coimbra, Portugal)

  • Matheus Koengkan

    (Departamento de Economia, Gestão, Engenharia Industrial e Turismo, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal)

  • Nuno Carlos Leitão

    (Polytechnic Institute of Santarém, Center for Advanced Studies in Management and Economics, Évora University, 7000-812 Évora, Portugal
    Center for African and Development Studies, Lisbon University, 1200-781 Lisbon, Portugal)

  • Chinazaekpere Nwani

    (Department of Economics and Development Studies, Federal University Ndufu Alike Ikwo, Abakaliki 1010, Nigeria)

  • Gizem Uzuner

    (Department of Economics and Finance, Istanbul Gelisim University, Istanbul 34310, Turkey)

  • Fatemeh Dehdar

    (Faculty of Economics, University of Coimbra, 3004-512 Coimbra, Portugal
    Faculty of Economics and Administration, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia)

  • Stefania Relva

    (Department of Power Engineering and Electrical Automation (PEA) (POLI), University of São Paulo, São Paulo 05508-010, Brazil)

  • Drielli Peyerl

    (Institute of Energy and Environment, University of São Paulo, São Paulo 05508-900, Brazil)


This analysis explored the effect of battery electric vehicles (BEVs) on greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) in a panel of twenty-nine countries from the European Union (EU) from 2010 to 2020. The method of moments quantile regression (MM-QR) was used, and the ordinary least squares with fixed effects (OLSfe) was used to verify the robustness of the results. The MM-QR support that in all three quantiles, economic growth causes a positive impact on GHGs. In the 50th and 75th quantiles, energy consumption causes a positive effect on GHGs. BEVs in the 25th, 50th, and 75th quantiles have a negative impact on GHGs. The OLSfe reveals that economic growth has a negative effect on GHGs, which contradicts the results from MM-QR. Energy consumption positively impacts GHGs. BEVs negatively impacts GHGs. Although the EU has supported a more sustainable transport system, accelerating the adoption of BEVs still requires effective political planning to achieve net-zero emissions. Thus, BEVs are an important technology to reduce GHGs to achieve the EU targets of decarbonising the energy sector. This research topic can open policy discussion between industry, government, and researchers, towards ensuring that BEVs provide a climate change mitigation pathway in the EU region.

Suggested Citation

  • José Alberto Fuinhas & Matheus Koengkan & Nuno Carlos Leitão & Chinazaekpere Nwani & Gizem Uzuner & Fatemeh Dehdar & Stefania Relva & Drielli Peyerl, 2021. "Effect of Battery Electric Vehicles on Greenhouse Gas Emissions in 29 European Union Countries," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 13(24), pages 1-26, December.
  • Handle: RePEc:gam:jsusta:v:13:y:2021:i:24:p:13611-:d:698634

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Chinazaekpere Nwani, 2021. "Taking Venezuela back to the sustainability path: The role of financial development and economic integration in low‐carbon transition," Natural Resources Forum, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 45(1), pages 37-62, February.
    2. Grossman, G.M & Krueger, A.B., 1991. "Environmental Impacts of a North American Free Trade Agreement," Papers 158, Princeton, Woodrow Wilson School - Public and International Affairs.
    3. Hausman, Jerry, 2015. "Specification tests in econometrics," Applied Econometrics, Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA), vol. 38(2), pages 112-134.
    4. Gene M. Grossman & Alan B. Krueger, 1995. "Economic Growth and the Environment," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, President and Fellows of Harvard College, vol. 110(2), pages 353-377.
    5. Joakim Westerlund, 2007. "Testing for Error Correction in Panel Data," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 69(6), pages 709-748, December.
    6. Mohamed Ouédraogo & Daiyan Peng & Xi Chen & Shujahat Haider Hashmi & Mamoudou Ibrahima Sall, 2021. "Dynamic Effect of Oil Resources on Environmental Quality: Testing the Environmental Kuznets Curve Hypothesis for Selected African Countries," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 13(7), pages 1-23, March.
    7. M. Hashem Pesaran, 2021. "General diagnostic tests for cross-sectional dependence in panels," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 60(1), pages 13-50, January.
    8. Horácio C. Faustino & Nuno Carlos Leitão, 2011. "Fragmentation in the automobile manufacturing industry: evidence from Portugal," Journal of Economic Studies, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, vol. 38(3), pages 287-300, August.
    9. Nuno Carlos Leitão, 2021. "Testing the Role of Trade on Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Portugal," Economies, MDPI, vol. 9(1), pages 1-15, February.
    10. M. Hashem Pesaran, 2007. "A simple panel unit root test in the presence of cross-section dependence," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 22(2), pages 265-312.
    11. Destek, Mehmet Akif & Ulucak, Recep & Dogan, Eyüp, 2018. "Analyzing the Environmental Kuznets Curve for the EU countries: The role of ecological footprint," MPRA Paper 106882, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    12. Shahbaz, Muhammad & Sharma, Rajesh & Sinha, Avik & Jiao, Zhilun, 2021. "Analyzing nonlinear impact of economic growth drivers on CO2 emissions: Designing an SDG framework for India," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 148(PB).
    13. Ivan A. Canay, 2011. "A simple approach to quantile regression for panel data," Econometrics Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 14(3), pages 368-386, October.
    14. Nuno Carlos Leitão & Daniel Balsalobre-Lorente & José María Cantos-Cantos, 2021. "The Impact of Renewable Energy and Economic Complexity on Carbon Emissions in BRICS Countries under the EKC Scheme," Energies, MDPI, vol. 14(16), pages 1-15, August.
    15. Koenker, Roger, 2004. "Quantile regression for longitudinal data," Journal of Multivariate Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 91(1), pages 74-89, October.
    16. Nils Hooftman & Luis Oliveira & Maarten Messagie & Thierry Coosemans & Joeri Van Mierlo, 2016. "Environmental Analysis of Petrol, Diesel and Electric Passenger Cars in a Belgian Urban Setting," Energies, MDPI, vol. 9(2), pages 1-24, January.
    17. Sheng, Mingyue Selena & Sreenivasan, Ajith Viswanath & Sharp, Basil & Du, Bo, 2021. "Well-to-wheel analysis of greenhouse gas emissions and energy consumption for electric vehicles: A comparative study in Oceania," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 158(C).
    18. Nuno Carlos Leitão, 2021. "The Effects of Corruption, Renewable Energy, Trade and CO 2 Emissions," Economies, MDPI, vol. 9(2), pages 1-19, April.
    19. Kishor Sharma, Badri Bhattarai, and Salma Ahmed, 2019. "Aid, Growth, Remittances and Carbon Emissions in Nepal," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 1).
    20. Matheus Koengkan & Luciano Dias Losekann & José Alberto Fuinhas, 2019. "The relationship between economic growth, consumption of energy, and environmental degradation: renewed evidence from Andean community nations," Environment Systems and Decisions, Springer, vol. 39(1), pages 95-107, March.
    21. Siqin Xiong & Junping Ji & Xiaoming Ma, 2019. "Comparative Life Cycle Energy and GHG Emission Analysis for BEVs and PhEVs: A Case Study in China," Energies, MDPI, vol. 12(5), pages 1-17, March.
    22. Andersson, Öivind & Börjesson, Pål, 2021. "The greenhouse gas emissions of an electrified vehicle combined with renewable fuels: Life cycle assessment and policy implications," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 289(C).
    23. Meierrieks, Daniel, 2021. "Weather shocks, climate change and human health," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 138(C).
    24. Troy R. Hawkins & Bhawna Singh & Guillaume Majeau‐Bettez & Anders Hammer Strømman, 2013. "Comparative Environmental Life Cycle Assessment of Conventional and Electric Vehicles," Journal of Industrial Ecology, Yale University, vol. 17(1), pages 53-64, February.
    25. Lori Bruhwiler & Sourish Basu & James H. Butler & Abhishek Chatterjee & Ed Dlugokencky & Melissa A. Kenney & Allison McComiskey & Stephen A. Montzka & Diane Stanitski, 2021. "Observations of greenhouse gases as climate indicators," Climatic Change, Springer, vol. 165(1), pages 1-18, March.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Matheus Koengkan & José Alberto Fuinhas, 2022. "Heterogeneous Effect of “Eco-Friendly” Dwellings on Transaction Prices in Real Estate Market in Portugal," Energies, MDPI, vol. 15(18), pages 1-18, September.
    2. Jacek Buko & Marek Bulsa & Adam Makowski, 2022. "Spatial Premises and Key Conditions for the Use of UAVs for Delivery of Items on the Example of the Polish Courier and Postal Services Market," Energies, MDPI, vol. 15(4), pages 1-17, February.
    3. Kazemzadeh, Emad & Fuinhas, José Alberto & Koengkan, Matheus & Shadmehri, Mohammad Taher Ahmadi, 2023. "Relationship between the share of renewable electricity consumption, economic complexity, financial development, and oil prices: A two-step club convergence and PVAR model approach," International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 173(C), pages 260-275.
    4. Nuno Carlos Leitão & Henrique Freixa Braz & Pedro Oliveira, 2022. "Revisiting Marginal Intra-Industry Trade and Portuguese Labour Market," Evaluation Review, , vol. 46(3), pages 336-359, June.
    5. Minfeng Wu & Wen Chen, 2022. "Forecast of Electric Vehicle Sales in the World and China Based on PCA-GRNN," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 14(4), pages 1-14, February.
    6. Vongdala Noudeng & Nguyen Van Quan & Tran Dang Xuan, 2022. "A Future Perspective on Waste Management of Lithium-Ion Batteries for Electric Vehicles in Lao PDR: Current Status and Challenges," IJERPH, MDPI, vol. 19(23), pages 1-22, December.
    7. Koengkan, Matheus & Fuinhas, José Alberto & Kazemzadeh, Emad & Alavijeh, Nooshin Karimi & de Araujo, Saulo Jardim, 2022. "The impact of renewable energy policies on deaths from outdoor and indoor air pollution: Empirical evidence from Latin American and Caribbean countries," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 245(C).
    8. Lucian-Ioan Dulău, 2023. "CO 2 Emissions of Battery Electric Vehicles and Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles," Clean Technol., MDPI, vol. 5(2), pages 1-17, June.
    9. Ning Yang & Lei Yang & Feng Xu & Xue Han & Bin Liu & Naiyuan Zheng & Yuan Li & Yu Bai & Liwei Li & Jiguang Wang, 2022. "Vehicle Emission Changes in China under Different Control Measures over Past Two Decades," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 14(24), pages 1-15, December.
    10. Matheus Koengkan & José Alberto Fuinhas & Anna Auza & Uğur Ursavaş, 2023. "The Impact of Energy Efficiency Regulations on Energy Poverty in Residential Dwellings in the Lisbon Metropolitan Area: An Empirical Investigation," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 15(5), pages 1-29, February.
    11. Emad Kazemzadeh & Matheus Koengkan & José Alberto Fuinhas, 2022. "Effect of Battery-Electric and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles on PM2.5 Emissions in 29 European Countries," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 14(4), pages 1-22, February.
    12. Panagiotis Skaloumpakas & Evangelos Spiliotis & Elissaios Sarmas & Alexios Lekidis & George Stravodimos & Dimitris Sarigiannis & Ioanna Makarouni & Vangelis Marinakis & John Psarras, 2022. "A Multi-Criteria Approach for Optimizing the Placement of Electric Vehicle Charging Stations in Highways," Energies, MDPI, vol. 15(24), pages 1-13, December.
    13. Nuno Carlos Leitão & Matheus Koengkan & José Alberto Fuinhas, 2022. "The Role of Intra-Industry Trade, Foreign Direct Investment, and Renewable Energy on Portuguese Carbon Dioxide Emissions," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 14(22), pages 1-21, November.
    14. Fatemeh Dehdar & Nuno Silva & José Alberto Fuinhas & Matheus Koengkan & Nazia Nazeer, 2022. "The Impact of Technology and Government Policies on OECD Carbon Dioxide Emissions," Energies, MDPI, vol. 15(22), pages 1-17, November.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Fatemeh Dehdar & Nuno Silva & José Alberto Fuinhas & Matheus Koengkan & Nazia Nazeer, 2022. "The Impact of Technology and Government Policies on OECD Carbon Dioxide Emissions," Energies, MDPI, vol. 15(22), pages 1-17, November.
    2. Albulescu, Claudiu Tiberiu & Tiwari, Aviral Kumar & Yoon, Seong-Min & Kang, Sang Hoon, 2019. "FDI, income, and environmental pollution in Latin America: Replication and extension using panel quantiles regression analysis," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 84(C).
    3. Chien, Fengsheng & Anwar, Ahsan & Hsu, Ching-Chi & Sharif, Arshian & Razzaq, Asif & Sinha, Avik, 2021. "The role of information and communication technology in encountering environmental degradation: Proposing an SDG framework for the BRICS countries," Technology in Society, Elsevier, vol. 65(C).
    4. Khan, Yasir & Hassan, Taimoor & Guiqin, Huang & Nabi, Ghulam, 2023. "Analyzing the impact of natural resources and rule of law on sustainable environment: A proposed policy framework for BRICS economies," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 86(PA).
    5. Boris OK Lokonon & Ichaou Mounirou, 2019. "Does foreign direct investment impede forest area in Sub‐Saharan Africa?," Natural Resources Forum, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 43(4), pages 230-240, November.
    6. Ahmad, Mahmood & Jiang, Ping & Majeed, Abdul & Umar, Muhammad & Khan, Zeeshan & Muhammad, Sulaman, 2020. "The dynamic impact of natural resources, technological innovations and economic growth on ecological footprint: An advanced panel data estimation," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 69(C).
    7. Chinazaekpere Nwani & Andrew Adewale Alola & Chimobi Philip Omoke & Bosede Ngozi Adeleye & Festus Victor Bekun, 2022. "Responding to the environmental effects of remittances and trade liberalization in net-importing economies: the role of renewable energy in Sub-Saharan Africa," Economic Change and Restructuring, Springer, vol. 55(4), pages 2631-2661, November.
    8. Konya Sevilay, 2022. "Panel Estimation of the Environmental Kuznets Curve for CO2 Emissions and Ecological Footprint: Environmental Sustainability in Developing Countries," Folia Oeconomica Stetinensia, Sciendo, vol. 22(2), pages 123-145, December.
    9. Hasan, Md. Bokhtiar & Wieloch, Justyna & Ali, Md. Sumon & Zikovic, Sasa & Uddin, Gazi Salah, 2023. "A new answer to the old question of the environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC). Does it work for BRICS countries?," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 87(PB).
    10. Ansari, Mohd Arshad, 2022. "Re-visiting the Environmental Kuznets curve for ASEAN: A comparison between ecological footprint and carbon dioxide emissions," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 168(C).
    11. Jian Xue & Zeeshan Rasool & Raima Nazar & Ahmad Imran Khan & Shaukat Hussain Bhatti & Sajid Ali, 2021. "Revisiting Natural Resources—Globalization-Environmental Quality Nexus: Fresh Insights from South Asian Countries," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 13(8), pages 1-19, April.
    12. Shahbaz, Muhammad & Nwani, Chinazaekpere & Bekun, Festus Victor & Gyamfi, Bright Akwasi & Agozie, Divine Q., 2022. "Discerning the role of renewable energy and energy efficiency in finding the path to cleaner consumption and production patterns: New insights from developing economies," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 260(C).
    13. Razzaq, Asif & Ajaz, Tahseen & Li, Jing Claire & Irfan, Muhammad & Suksatan, Wanich, 2021. "Investigating the asymmetric linkages between infrastructure development, green innovation, and consumption-based material footprint: Novel empirical estimations from highly resource-consuming economi," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 74(C).
    14. Muhammad Zahid Rafique & Abdul Majeed Nadeem & Wanjun Xia & Majid Ikram & Hafiz Muhammad Shoaib & Umer Shahzad, 2022. "Does economic complexity matter for environmental sustainability? Using ecological footprint as an indicator," Environment, Development and Sustainability: A Multidisciplinary Approach to the Theory and Practice of Sustainable Development, Springer, vol. 24(4), pages 4623-4640, April.
    15. Zhou, Hui & Awosusi, Abraham Ayobamiji & Dagar, Vishal & Zhu, Guohua & Abbas, Shujaat, 2023. "Unleashing the asymmetric effect of natural resources abundance on carbon emissions in regional comprehensive economic partnership: What role do economic globalization and disaggregating energy play?," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 85(PA).
    16. Tiba, Sofien & Belaid, Fateh, 2020. "The pollution concern in the era of globalization: Do the contribution of foreign direct investment and trade openness matter?," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 92(C).
    17. Ulucak, Recep & Danish, & Ozcan, Burcu, 2020. "Relationship between energy consumption and environmental sustainability in OECD countries: The role of natural resources rents," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 69(C).
    18. Halkos, George, 2011. "Economy - environment relationship: The case of sulphur emissions," MPRA Paper 45480, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    19. Okelele, Daniel Ochudi & Lokina, Razack & Ruhinduka, Remidius Denis, 2021. "Effect of Trade Openness on Ecological Footprint in Sub-Saharan Africa," African Journal of Economic Review, African Journal of Economic Review, vol. 10(1), December.
    20. Zheng Fang & Bihong Huang & Zhuoxiang Yang, 2020. "Trade openness and the environmental Kuznets curve: Evidence from Chinese cities," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 43(10), pages 2622-2649, October.


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:gam:jsusta:v:13:y:2021:i:24:p:13611-:d:698634. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: MDPI Indexing Manager (email available below). General contact details of provider: .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service. RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.