Partial Vertical Integration, Risk Shifting, and Product Rejection in the High-Value Export Supply Chain: The Ghana Pineapple Sector
Summary High-value export supply chains hold potential to improve smallholders' welfare, but their relative production inefficiency and moral hazard problems can cause exporters to prefer vertically integrated plantation production. However, pineapple exporters in Ghana produce both for their own account and purchase from smallholders. We hypothesize that vertical integration is only partial because exporters face large market risks that smallholders, surprisingly, are better able to absorb. We show empirically that exporters' average rejection rate of export-quality fruit is high and varies in response to unanticipated fluctuations in European demand. These results support the hypothesis and are consistent with theories of partial vertical integration but not the standard principal-agent paradigm.
If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Key, Nigel & Runsten, David, 1999. "Contract Farming, Smallholders, and Rural Development in Latin America: The Organization of Agroprocessing Firms and the Scale of Outgrower Production," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 27(2), pages 381-401, February.
- Ashraf, Nava & Giné, Xavier & Karlan, Dean S., 2009.
"Finding Missing Markets (and a disturbing epilogue): Evidence from an Export Crop Adoption and Marketing Intervention in Kenya,"
CEPR Discussion Papers
7133, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Nava Ashraf & Xavier Giné & Dean Karlan, 2009. "Finding Missing Markets (and a Disturbing Epilogue): Evidence from an Export Crop Adoption and Marketing Intervention in Kenya," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 91(4), pages 973-990.
- Ashraf, Nava & Gine, Xavier & Karlan, Dean, 2008. "Finding Missing Markets (and a Disturbing Epilogue): Evidence from an Export Crop Adoption and Marketing Intervention in Kenya," Working Papers 56, Yale University, Department of Economics.
- Ashraf, Nava & Gine, Xavier & Karlan, Dean, 2008. "Finding missing markets (and a disturbing epilogue) : evidence from an export crop adoption and marketing intervention in Kenya," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4477, The World Bank.
- Klein, Benjamin & Crawford, Robert G & Alchian, Armen A, 1978. "Vertical Integration, Appropriable Rents, and the Competitive Contracting Process," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 21(2), pages 297-326, October.
- Maertens, Miet & Swinnen, Johan F.M., 2007.
"Trade, Standards and Poverty. Evidence from Senegal,"
106th Seminar, October 25-27, 2007, Montpellier, France
7924, European Association of Agricultural Economists.
- Maertens, Miet & Swinnen, Johan F.M., 2009. "Trade, Standards, and Poverty: Evidence from Senegal," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 37(1), pages 161-178, January.
- Miet Maertens & Johan F.M. Swinnen, 2006. "Trade, Standards, and Poverty: Evidence from Senegal," LICOS Discussion Papers 17706, LICOS - Centre for Institutions and Economic Performance, KU Leuven.
- Negri, Mariano & Porto, Guido, 2007.
"Burley Tobacco Clubs in Malawi: Nonmarket Institutions for Exports,"
6210, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Negri, Mariano & Porto, Guido G., 2008. "Burley tobacco clubs in Malawi : nonmarket institutions for exports," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4561, The World Bank.
- Tschirley, David L. & Zulu, Ballard & Shaffer, James D., 2004. "Cotton in Zambia: An Assessment of its Organization, Performance, Current Policy Initiatives, and Challenges for the Future," Food Security Collaborative Working Papers 54467, Michigan State University, Department of Agricultural, Food, and Resource Economics.
- Bart Minten & Lalaina Randrianarison & Johan F.M. Swinnen, 2006.
"Global Retail Chains and Poor Farmers: Evidence from Madagascar,"
LICOS Discussion Papers
16406, LICOS - Centre for Institutions and Economic Performance, KU Leuven.
- Minten, Bart & Randrianarison, Lalaina & Swinnen, Johan F.M., 2009. "Global Retail Chains and Poor Farmers: Evidence from Madagascar," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 37(11), pages 1728-1741, November.
- Paul Winters & Phil Simmons & Ian Patrick, 2005. "Evaluation of a Hybrid Seed Contract between Smallholders and a Multinational Company in East Java, Indonesia," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 41(1), pages 62-89.
- Henson, Spencer & Jaffee, Steven & Cranfield, John & Blandon, Jose & Siegel, Paul, 2008. "Linking African smallholders to high-value markets : practitioner perspectives on benefits, constraints, and interventions," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4573, The World Bank.
- Allen, Douglas W & Lueck, Dean, 1995. "Risk Preferences and the Economics of Contracts," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 85(2), pages 447-51, May.
- C. Dolan & J. Humphrey, 2000. "Governance and Trade in Fresh Vegetables: The Impact of UK Supermarkets on the African Horticulture Industry," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 37(2), pages 147-176.
- David Card, 1990.
"The impact of the Mariel boatlift on the Miami labor market,"
Industrial and Labor Relations Review,
ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 43(2), pages 245-257, January.
- David Card, 1990. "The Impact of the Mariel Boatlift on the Miami Labor Market," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 43(2), pages 245-257, January.
- David Card, 1989. "The Impact of the Mariel Boatlift on the Miami Labor Market," NBER Working Papers 3069, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- David Card, 1989. "The Impact of the Mariel Boatlift on the Miami Labor Market," Working Papers 633, Princeton University, Department of Economics, Industrial Relations Section..
- D. W. Carlton, 1976.
"Vertical Integration in Competitive Markets Under Uncertainty,"
174, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Economics.
- Carlton, Dennis W, 1979. "Vertical Integration in Competitive Markets under Uncertainty," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 27(3), pages 189-209, March.
- Timothy G. Conley & Christopher R. Udry, 2010.
"Learning about a New Technology: Pineapple in Ghana,"
American Economic Review,
American Economic Association, vol. 100(1), pages 35-69, March.
- Timothy G. Conley & Christopher R. Udry, 2005. "Learning about a new technology: pineapple in Ghana," Proceedings, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco.
- Conley, T.G. & Udry, C.R., 2000. "Learning about a New Technology: Pineapple in Ghana," Papers 817, Yale - Economic Growth Center.
- Timothy G. Conley & Christopher R. Udry, 2000. "Learning About a New Technology: Pineapple in Ghana," Working Papers 817, Economic Growth Center, Yale University, revised May 2004.
- Otsuka, Keijiro & Chuma, Hiroyuki & Hayami, Yujiro, 1992. "Land and Labor Contracts in Agrarian Economies: Theories and Facts," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 30(4), pages 1965-2018, December.
- Olivier Cadot & Laure Dutoit & Jaime de Melo, 2009. "The Elimination of Madagascar's Vanilla Marketing Board, 10 Years on," Journal of African Economies, Centre for the Study of African Economies (CSAE), vol. 18(3), pages 388-430, June.
- Masakure, Oliver & Henson, Spencer, 2005. "Why do small-scale producers choose to produce under contract? Lessons from nontraditional vegetable exports from Zimbabwe," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 33(10), pages 1721-1733, October.
- Glover, David J., 1984. "Contract farming and smallholder outgrower schemes in less-developed countries," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 12(11-12), pages 1143-1157.
- Johann Kirsten & Kurt Sartorius, 2002.
"Linking agribusiness and small-scale farmers in developing countries: Is there a new role for contract farming?,"
Development Southern Africa,
Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 19(4), pages 503-529.
- Kirsten, Johann F. & Sartorius, Kurt, 2002. "Linking Agribusiness And Small-Scale Farmers In Developing Countries: Is There A New Role For Contract Farming?," Working Papers 18025, University of Pretoria, Department of Agricultural Economics, Extension and Rural Development.
- Joseph E. Stiglitz, 1974. "Incentives and Risk Sharing in Sharecropping," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 41(2), pages 219-255.
- Phil Simmons & Paul Winters & Ian Patrick, 2005. "An analysis of contract farming in East Java, Bali, and Lombok, Indonesia," Agricultural Economics, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 33(s3), pages 513-525, November.
- C. Martin Webber & Patrick Labaste, 2010. "Building Competitiveness in Africa's Agriculture : A Guide to Value Chain Concepts and Applications," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 2401.
- Vagneron, Isabelle & Faure, Guy & Loeillet, Denis, 2009. "Is there a pilot in the chain? Identifying the key drivers of change in the fresh pineapple sector," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(5), pages 437-446, October.
- Poulton, Colin & Gibbon, Peter & Hanyani-Mlambo, Benjamine & Kydd, Jonathan & Maro, Wilbald & Larsen, Marianne Nylandsted & Osorio, Afonso & Tschirley, David & Zulu, Ballard, 2004. "Competition and Coordination in Liberalized African Cotton Market Systems," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 32(3), pages 519-536, March.
- Stephen G. Donald & Kevin Lang, 2007. "Inference with Difference-in-Differences and Other Panel Data," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 89(2), pages 221-233, May.
- Minot, Nicholas & Ngigi, Margaret, 2004. "Are Kenya's horticultural exports a replicable success story?," 2020 vision briefs 12 No. 07, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
- Singh, Sukhpal, 2002. "Contracting Out Solutions: Political Economy of Contract Farming in the Indian Punjab," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 30(9), pages 1621-1638, September.
- Glover, David J., 1987. "Increasing the benefits to smallholders from contract farming: Problems for farmers' organizations and policy makers," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 15(4), pages 441-448, April.
- Minot, Nicholas & Ngigi, Margaret, 2004. "Are horticultural exports a replicable success story?," MTID discussion papers 73, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:wdevel:v:39:y:2011:i:9:p:1611-1623. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Zhang, Lei)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.