IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/teinso/v59y2019ics0160791x16300811.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Microfinance, financial inclusion and ICT: Implications for poverty and inequality

Author

Listed:
  • Mushtaq, Rizwan
  • Bruneau, Catherine

Abstract

This study assesses the role of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in poverty & inequality reduction by fostering financial inclusion, using panel dataset of sixty-two countries between 2001 and 2012. It mainly focuses on two different dimensions of financial inclusion e.g., inclusion by commercial banks and by microfinance institutions (MFIs). As the formal financial institutions deal with wealthy and well-off clients, whereas the MFIs claim to be the bankers of poor. A large number of poor people are still un-banked in low income countries; however, research in development finance suggests that accessible and timely finance has the potential to bring poor out of poverty. The importance of MFIs in providing credit and other financial services at the doorstep of financially excluded households is globally acknowledged. Thus, it is inevitable to investigate the determinants of (MFIs)/financial inclusion particularly in developing countries. In the first step of data analysis, we find positive association of ICT diffusion with financial inclusion and a negative relationship with poverty & inequality. Furthermore, the results of the study indicate poverty reducing effects of financial inclusion measured either way. It was also observed that the ICT dimensions when used as instruments for financial inclusion accelerate economic growth and reduce poverty & inequality. Therefore, policies to promote information and communication infrastructure could stimulate financial inclusion by promoting digital finance. Moreover, better collaboration between ICT and financial sector will likely to advance digital financial inclusion that could help to bridge the financial infrastructure gap.

Suggested Citation

  • Mushtaq, Rizwan & Bruneau, Catherine, 2019. "Microfinance, financial inclusion and ICT: Implications for poverty and inequality," Technology in Society, Elsevier, vol. 59(C).
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:teinso:v:59:y:2019:i:c:s0160791x16300811
    DOI: 10.1016/j.techsoc.2019.101154
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160791X16300811
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    File URL: https://libkey.io/10.1016/j.techsoc.2019.101154?utm_source=ideas
    LibKey link: if access is restricted and if your library uses this service, LibKey will redirect you to where you can use your library subscription to access this item
    ---><---

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Park, Cyn-Young & Mercado, Rogelio, 2015. "Financial Inclusion, Poverty, and Income Inequality in Developing Asia," ADB Economics Working Paper Series 426, Asian Development Bank.
    2. Ahlin, Christian & Lin, Jocelyn & Maio, Michael, 2011. "Where does microfinance flourish? Microfinance institution performance in macroeconomic context," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 95(2), pages 105-120, July.
    3. Diego Comin & Ramana Nanda, 2019. "Financial Development and Technology Diffusion," IMF Economic Review, Palgrave Macmillan;International Monetary Fund, vol. 67(2), pages 395-419, June.
    4. Sylviane Guillaumont Jeanneney & Kangni Kpodar, 2011. "Financial Development and Poverty Reduction: Can There be a Benefit without a Cost?," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 47(1), pages 143-163.
    5. McIntosh, Craig & Villaran, Gonzalo & Wydick, Bruce, 2011. "Microfinance and Home Improvement: Using Retrospective Panel Data to Measure Program Effects on Fundamental Events," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 39(6), pages 922-937, June.
    6. Sassi, Seifallah & Goaied, Mohamed, 2013. "Financial development, ICT diffusion and economic growth: Lessons from MENA region," Telecommunications Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(4), pages 252-261.
    7. Imai, Katsushi S. & Gaiha, Raghav & Thapa, Ganesh & Annim, Samuel Kobina, 2012. "Microfinance and Poverty—A Macro Perspective," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 40(8), pages 1675-1689.
    8. Rand, John & Tarp, Finn, 2002. "Business Cycles in Developing Countries: Are They Different?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 30(12), pages 2071-2088, December.
    9. La Porta, Rafael & Florencio Lopez-de-Silanes & Andrei Shleifer & Robert W. Vishny, 1997. "Legal Determinants of External Finance," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 52(3), pages 1131-1150, July.
    10. Luigi Guiso & Paola Sapienza & Luigi Zingales, 2009. "Does Local Financial Development Matter?," Springer Books, in: Damiano Bruno Silipo (ed.), The Banks and the Italian Economy, chapter 0, pages 31-66, Springer.
    11. Anna Lo Prete, 2018. "Inequality and the finance you know: does economic literacy matter?," Economia Politica: Journal of Analytical and Institutional Economics, Springer;Fondazione Edison, vol. 35(1), pages 183-205, April.
    12. Andrea F. Presbitero & Roberta Rabellotti, 2016. "The Determinants of Firm Access to Credit in Latin America: Micro Characteristics and Market Structure," Economic Notes, Banca Monte dei Paschi di Siena SpA, vol. 45(3), pages 445-472, November.
    13. Anusua Datta & Sumit Agarwal, 2004. "Telecommunications and economic growth: a panel data approach," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 36(15), pages 1649-1654.
    14. Terberger, Eva, 2003. "Microfinance institutions in the development of financial markets," Revista CEPAL, Naciones Unidas Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe (CEPAL), December.
    15. Andrianova, Svetlana & Demetriades, Panicos & Xu, Chenggang, 2011. "Political Economy Origins of Financial Markets in Europe and Asia," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 39(5), pages 686-699, May.
    16. Diego Comin & Bart Hobijn, 2009. "Lobbies and Technology Diffusion," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 91(2), pages 229-244, May.
    17. Isaac Mbiti & David N. Weil, 2015. "Mobile Banking: The Impact of M-Pesa in Kenya," NBER Chapters, in: African Successes, Volume III: Modernization and Development, pages 247-293, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    18. Ahlin, Christian & Jiang, Neville, 2008. "Can micro-credit bring development?," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 86(1), pages 1-21, April.
    19. Greenwood, Jeremy & Jovanovic, Boyan, 1990. "Financial Development, Growth, and the Distribution of Income," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 98(5), pages 1076-1107, October.
    20. Imai, Katsushi S. & Arun, Thankom & Annim, Samuel Kobina, 2010. "Microfinance and Household Poverty Reduction: New Evidence from India," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 38(12), pages 1760-1774, December.
    21. Rémi Bazillier & Jérôme Hericourt, 2017. "The Circular Relationship Between Inequality, Leverage, And Financial Crises," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 31(2), pages 463-496, April.
    22. Mishra, Vishal & Singh Bisht, Shailendra, 2013. "Mobile banking in a developing economy: A customer-centric model for policy formulation," Telecommunications Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(6), pages 503-514.
    23. Mr. Adrian Alter & Boriana Yontcheva, 2015. "Financial Inclusion and Development in the CEMAC," IMF Working Papers 2015/235, International Monetary Fund.
    24. Sylviane Guillaumont Jeanneney & Kangni Kpodar, 2011. "Financial Development and Poverty Reduction: Can There Be a Benefit Without a Cost?," Post-Print halshs-00601306, HAL.
    25. Miriam Bruhn & Inessa Love, 2014. "The Real Impact of Improved Access to Finance: Evidence from Mexico," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 69(3), pages 1347-1376, June.
    26. Niels Hermes, 2014. "Does microfinance affect income inequality?," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 46(9), pages 1021-1034, March.
    27. King, Robert G. & Levine, Ross, 1993. "Finance, entrepreneurship and growth: Theory and evidence," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(3), pages 513-542, December.
    28. Beck, Thorsten & Brown, Martin, 2011. "Which households use banks? Evidence from the transition economies," Working Paper Series 1295, European Central Bank.
    29. Mr. Kangni R Kpodar & Mihasonirina Andrianaivo, 2011. "ICT, Financial Inclusion, and Growth: Evidence from African Countries," IMF Working Papers 2011/073, International Monetary Fund.
    30. Zhang, Ruixin & Ben Naceur, Sami, 2019. "Financial development, inequality, and poverty: Some international evidence," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 61(C), pages 1-16.
    31. Nargiza Maksudova, 2010. "Macroeconomics of Microfinance: How Do the Channels Work?," CERGE-EI Working Papers wp423, The Center for Economic Research and Graduate Education - Economics Institute, Prague.
    32. Hisako, KAI & Shigeyuki, HAMORI, 2009. "Microfinance and Inequality," MPRA Paper 17537, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    33. Honohan, Patrick, 2008. "Cross-country variation in household access to financial services," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(11), pages 2493-2500, November.
    34. Abhijit Banerjee & Esther Duflo & Rachel Glennerster & Cynthia Kinnan, 2015. "The Miracle of Microfinance? Evidence from a Randomized Evaluation," American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, American Economic Association, vol. 7(1), pages 22-53, January.
    35. Beck, Thorsten & Cull, Robert & Fuchs, Michael & Getenga, Jared & Gatere, Peter & Randa, John & Trandafir, Mircea, 2010. "Banking sector stability, efficiency, and outreach in Kenya," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5442, The World Bank.
    36. Sang H. Lee & John Levendis & Luis Gutierrez, 2012. "Telecommunications and economic growth: an empirical analysis of sub-Saharan Africa," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 44(4), pages 461-469, February.
    37. Huang, Yongfu, 2010. "Political Institutions and Financial Development: An Empirical Study," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 38(12), pages 1667-1677, December.
    38. Anson, Jose & Berthaud, Alexandre & Klapper, Leora & Singer, Dorothe, 2013. "Financial inclusion and the role of the post office," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6630, The World Bank.
    39. Levine, Ross, 2005. "Finance and Growth: Theory and Evidence," Handbook of Economic Growth, in: Philippe Aghion & Steven Durlauf (ed.), Handbook of Economic Growth, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 12, pages 865-934, Elsevier.
    40. Lansana Bangoura & Momar Khary Mbow & Albert Lessoua & Diadié Diaw, 2016. "Impact of Microfinance on Poverty and Inequality A Heterogeneous Panel Causality Analysis," Revue d'économie politique, Dalloz, vol. 126(5), pages 789-818.
    41. Meera Tiwari, 2008. "ICTs and poverty reduction: user perspective study of rural Madhya Pradesh, India," The European Journal of Development Research, Taylor and Francis Journals, vol. 20(3), pages 448-461.
    42. Annabel Vanroose & Bert D’Espallier, 2013. "Do microfinance institutions accomplish their mission? Evidence from the relationship between traditional financial sector development and microfinance institutions’ outreach and performance," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 45(15), pages 1965-1982, May.
    43. Robin Burgess & Rohini Pande & Grace Wong, 2005. "Banking for the Poor: Evidence From India," Journal of the European Economic Association, MIT Press, vol. 3(2-3), pages 268-278, 04/05.
    44. Beck, Thorsten & Levine, Ross & Loayza, Norman, 2000. "Finance and the sources of growth," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 58(1-2), pages 261-300.
    45. Sylviane Guillaumont Jeanneney & Kangni Kpodar, 2011. "Financial Development and Poverty Reduction: Can There be a Benefit without a Cost?," Post-Print halshs-00554229, HAL.
    46. Demirguc-Kunt Asli & Klapper Leora & Randall Douglas, 2014. "Islamic Finance and Financial Inclusion: Measuring Use of and Demand for Formal Financial Services among Muslim Adults," Review of Middle East Economics and Finance, De Gruyter, vol. 10(2), pages 1-42, August.
    47. Kendall, Jake & Mylenko, Nataliya & Ponce, Alejandro, 2010. "Measuring financial access around the world," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5253, The World Bank.
    48. Farkhanda Shamim, 2007. "The ICT environment, financial sector and economic growth: a cross‐country analysis," Journal of Economic Studies, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, vol. 34(4), pages 352-370, September.
    49. Katsiaryna Svirydzenka, 2016. "Introducing a New Broad-based Index of Financial Development," IMF Working Papers 2016/005, International Monetary Fund.
    50. Pradhan, Rudra P. & Arvin, Mak B. & Norman, Neville R., 2015. "The dynamics of information and communications technologies infrastructure, economic growth, and financial development: Evidence from Asian countries," Technology in Society, Elsevier, vol. 42(C), pages 135-149.
    51. Takeshi Inoue & Shigeyuki Hamori, 2013. "Financial permeation as a role of microfinance: has microfinance actually been a viable financial intermediary for helping the poor?," Applied Financial Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 23(20), pages 1567-1578, October.
    52. Thorsten Beck & Asli Demirgüç-Kunt & Ross Levine, 2007. "Finance, inequality and the poor," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 12(1), pages 27-49, March.
    53. Lo Prete, Anna, 2013. "Economic literacy, inequality, and financial development," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 118(1), pages 74-76.
    54. Kangni Kpodar & Mihasonirina Andrianaivo, 2011. "ICT, Financial Inclusion and Growth: Evidence from African Countries," Post-Print halshs-00602411, HAL.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Ahamed, M. Mostak & Mallick, Sushanta K., 2019. "Is financial inclusion good for bank stability? International evidence," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 157(C), pages 403-427.
    2. Franklin Allen & Elena Carletti & Robert Cull & Jun QJ Qian & Lemma Senbet & Patricio Valenzuela, 2021. "Improving Access to Banking: Evidence from Kenya [A matter of experience? Understanding the decline in group lending]," Review of Finance, European Finance Association, vol. 25(2), pages 403-447.
    3. Abrar, Afsheen & Hasan, Iftekhar & Kabir, Rezaul, 2021. "Finance-growth nexus and banking efficiency: The impact of microfinance institutions," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 114(C).
    4. Atul MEHTA & Joysankar BHATTACHARYA, 2018. "Financial sector development and the poor in developing countries: revisiting the access to finance channel," Theoretical and Applied Economics, Asociatia Generala a Economistilor din Romania / Editura Economica, vol. 0(3(616), A), pages 153-168, Autumn.
    5. Tchamyou, Vanessa S. & Erreygers, Guido & Cassimon, Danny, 2019. "Inequality, ICT and financial access in Africa," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 139(C), pages 169-184.
    6. Kamel Bel Hadj Miled & Moheddine Younsi & Monia Landolsi, 2022. "Does microfinance program innovation reduce income inequality? Cross-country and panel data analysis," Journal of Innovation and Entrepreneurship, Springer, vol. 11(1), pages 1-15, December.
    7. de Moraes, Claudio Oliveira & Cruz, Guilherme, 2023. "What do we know about the relationship between banks and income inequality? Empirical evidence for emerging and low-income countries," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 123(C).
    8. Donou-Adonsou, Ficawoyi & Sylwester, Kevin, 2017. "Growth effect of banks and microfinance: Evidence from developing countries," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 64(C), pages 44-56.
    9. Giulia Bettin & Claudia Pigini & Alberto Zazzaro, 2020. "Financial inclusion and poverty transitions: an empirical analysis for Italy," Mo.Fi.R. Working Papers 164, Money and Finance Research group (Mo.Fi.R.) - Univ. Politecnica Marche - Dept. Economic and Social Sciences.
    10. Margaret R. Magwedere & Joseph Chisasa & Godfrey Marozva, 2022. "Examining the Causal Relationship between Financial Intermediation and Poverty in Selected Developing Countries," International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues, Econjournals, vol. 12(1), pages 75-84.
    11. Imam, Patrick & Kpodar, Kangni, 2016. "Islamic banking: Good for growth?," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 59(C), pages 387-401.
    12. Jakob Haan & Regina Pleninger & Jan-Egbert Sturm, 2022. "Does Financial Development Reduce the Poverty Gap?," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 161(1), pages 1-27, May.
    13. Muri Wole Adedokun & Mehmet Ağa, 2023. "Financial inclusion: A pathway to economic growth in Sub‐Saharan African economies," International Journal of Finance & Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 28(3), pages 2712-2728, July.
    14. Seven, Unal & Coskun, Yener, 2016. "Does financial development reduce income inequality and poverty? Evidence from emerging countries," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 26(C), pages 34-63.
    15. Raja Almarzoqi & Sami Ben Naceur & Akshay Kotak, 2015. "What Matters for Financial Development and Stability?," IMF Working Papers 2015/173, International Monetary Fund.
    16. Popov, Alexander, 2017. "Evidence on finance and economic growth," Working Paper Series 2115, European Central Bank.
    17. James B. Ang & Jakob B. Madsen, 2012. "Risk capital, private credit, and innovative production," Canadian Journal of Economics/Revue canadienne d'économique, John Wiley & Sons, vol. 45(4), pages 1608-1639, November.
    18. Singh, Nirvikar, 2018. "Financial Inclusion: Concepts, Issues and Policies for India," Santa Cruz Department of Economics, Working Paper Series qt98p5m37s, Department of Economics, UC Santa Cruz.
    19. Christian Lambert Nguena, 2019. "Working Paper 323- Mobile Financial and Banking Services Development in Africa," Working Paper Series 2449, African Development Bank.
    20. Jean-Pierre Allegret & Sana Azzabi, 2014. "Intégration financière internationale et croissance économique dans les pays émergents et en développement : le canal du développement financier," Revue d’économie du développement, De Boeck Université, vol. 22(3), pages 27-68.

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:teinso:v:59:y:2019:i:c:s0160791x16300811. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Catherine Liu (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://www.journals.elsevier.com/technology-in-society .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service. RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.