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Which households use banks? Evidence from the transition economies

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  • Beck, Thorsten
  • Brown, Martin

Abstract

This paper uses survey data for 29,000 households from 29 transition economies to explore how the use of banking services is related to household characteristics, bank ownership structure and the development of the financial infrastructure. At the household level we find that the holding of a bank account or bank card increases with income, wealth and education in most countries and also find evidence for an urban-rural gap, as well as for a role of religion and social integration. Our results show that foreign bank ownership is associated with more bank accounts among high-wealth, high-income, and educated households. State ownership, on the other hand, does not induce financial inclusion of rural and poorer households. We find that higher deposit insurance coverage, better payment systems and creditor protection encourage the holding of bank accounts in particular by high income and high-wealth households. All in all, our findings shed doubt on the ability of policy levers to broaden the financial system to disadvantaged groups. JEL Classification: G2, G18, O16, P34

Suggested Citation

  • Beck, Thorsten & Brown, Martin, 2011. "Which households use banks? Evidence from the transition economies," Working Paper Series 1295, European Central Bank.
  • Handle: RePEc:ecb:ecbwps:20111295
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    File URL: https://www.ecb.europa.eu//pub/pdf/scpwps/ecbwp1295.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Thorsten Beck & Asli Demirgüç-Kunt & Maria Soledad Martinez Peria, 2008. "Banking Services for Everyone? Barriers to Bank Access and Use around the World," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 22(3), pages 397-430, November.
    2. Focarelli, Dario & Pozzolo, Alberto Franco, 2001. "The patterns of cross-border bank mergers and shareholdings in OECD countries," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 25(12), pages 2305-2337, December.
    3. Claeys, Sophie & Hainz, Christa, 2006. "Acquisition versus greenfield: The impact of the mode of foreign bank entry on information and bank lending rates," Discussion Paper Series of SFB/TR 15 Governance and the Efficiency of Economic Systems 182, Free University of Berlin, Humboldt University of Berlin, University of Bonn, University of Mannheim, University of Munich.
    4. Cull, Robert & Senbet, Lemma W & Sorge, Marco, 2005. "Deposit Insurance and Financial Development," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 37(1), pages 43-82, February.
    5. Sapienza, Paola, 2004. "The effects of government ownership on bank lending," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 72(2), pages 357-384, May.
    6. Beck, Thorsten & Demirguc-Kunt, Asli & Maksimovic, Vojislav, 2004. "Bank Competition and Access to Finance: International Evidence," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 36(3), pages 627-648, June.
    7. Goldberg, Lawrence G & Saunders, Anthony, 1981. "The Growth of Organizational Forms of Foreign Banks in the U.S.: A Note," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 13(3), pages 365-374, August.
    8. Djankov, Simeon & McLiesh, Caralee & Shleifer, Andrei, 2007. "Private credit in 129 countries," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 84(2), pages 299-329, May.
    9. Shawn Cole, 2009. "Fixing Market Failures or Fixing Elections? Agricultural Credit in India," American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, American Economic Association, vol. 1(1), pages 219-250, January.
    10. Ergungor, O Emre, 2004. "Comment on "Bank Competition and Access to Finance: International Evidence" by Thorsten Beck, Asli Demirguc-Kunt, and Vojislav Maksimovic," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 36(3), pages 649-654, June.
    11. Enrica Detragiache & Thierry Tressel & Poonam Gupta, 2008. "Foreign Banks in Poor Countries: Theory and Evidence," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 63(5), pages 2123-2160, October.
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    21. Atif Mian, 2006. "Distance Constraints: The Limits of Foreign Lending in Poor Economies," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 61(3), pages 1465-1505, June.
    22. Beck, Thorsten & Cull, Robert & Fuchs, Michael & Getenga, Jared & Gatere, Peter & Randa, John & Trandafir, Mircea, 2010. "Banking sector stability, efficiency, and outreach in Kenya," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5442, The World Bank.
    23. Adam, Christopher & Collier, Paul & Ndung'u, Njuguna (ed.), 2010. "Kenya: Policies for Prosperity," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780199602377.
    24. Goldberg, Lawrence G. & Saunders, Anthony, 1981. "The determinants of foreign banking activity in the United States," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 5(1), pages 17-32, March.
    25. Demirguc-Kunt, Asli & Karacaovali, Baybars & Laeven, Luc, 2005. "Deposit insurance around the world : a comprehensive database," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3628, The World Bank.
    26. Buch, Claudia M. & Lipponer, Alexander, 2004. "FDI versus cross-border financial services: The globalisation of German banks," Discussion Paper Series 1: Economic Studies 2004,05, Deutsche Bundesbank.
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    28. Buch, Claudia M. & DeLong, Gayle, 2004. "Cross-border bank mergers: What lures the rare animal?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 28(9), pages 2077-2102, September.
    29. Inessa Love & Nataliya Mylenko, 2003. "Credit reporting and financing constraints," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3142, The World Bank.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Catalina Martinez & Annette Krauss, 2015. "What Drives Financial Inclusion at the Bottom of the Pyramid? Empirical Evidence from Microfinance Panel Data," CFD Working Papers 07-2015, Centre for Finance and Development, The Graduate Institute.
    2. Brown, Martin & De Haas, Ralph & Sokolov, Vladimir, 2013. "Regional Inflation and Financial Dollarization," Working Papers on Finance 1327, University of St. Gallen, School of Finance.
    3. Kearney, Colm, 2012. "Emerging markets research: Trends, issues and future directions," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 13(2), pages 159-183.
    4. Stix, Helmut, 2013. "Why do people save in cash? Distrust, memories of banking crises, weak institutions and dollarization," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(11), pages 4087-4106.
    5. David, Bounie & Abel, François & Patrick, Waelbroeck, 2016. "Debit card and demand for cash," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 73(C), pages 55-66.
    6. Brown, Martin & Lane, Philip R., 2011. "Debt overhang in emerging Europe ?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5784, The World Bank.
    7. Maria Semenova, 2018. "A Bank Run in a Classroom: Do Smart Depositors Withdraw on Time?," HSE Working papers WP BRP 64/FE/2018, National Research University Higher School of Economics.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    access to finance; bank-ownership; Creditor Protection; deposit insurance; payment system;

    JEL classification:

    • G2 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services
    • G18 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Government Policy and Regulation
    • O16 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Financial Markets; Saving and Capital Investment; Corporate Finance and Governance
    • P34 - Economic Systems - - Socialist Institutions and Their Transitions - - - Finance

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