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Which Households Use Banks? Evidence from the Transition Economies

Author

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  • Thorsten Beck
  • Martin Brown

Abstract

This paper uses survey data for 29,000 households from 29 transition economies to explore how the use of banking services is related to household characteristics, bank ownership structure and the development of the financial infrastructure. At the household level we find that the holding of a bank account or bank card increases with income, wealth and education in most countries and also find evidence for an urban-rural gap, as well as for a role of religion and social integration. Our results show that foreign bank ownership is associated with more bank accounts among high-wealth, high-income, and educated households. State ownership, on the other hand, does not induce financial inclusion of rural and poorer households. We find that higher deposit insurance coverage, better payment systems and creditor protection encourage the holding of bank accounts in particular by highincome and high-wealth households. All in all, our findings shed doubt on the ability of policy levers to broaden the financial system to disadvantaged groups.

Suggested Citation

  • Thorsten Beck & Martin Brown, 2011. "Which Households Use Banks? Evidence from the Transition Economies," BCL working papers 50, Central Bank of Luxembourg.
  • Handle: RePEc:bcl:bclwop:bclwp050
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    22. Beck, Thorsten & Cull, Robert & Fuchs, Michael & Getenga, Jared & Gatere, Peter & Randa, John & Trandafir, Mircea, 2010. "Banking sector stability, efficiency, and outreach in Kenya," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5442, The World Bank.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Catalina Martinez & Annette Krauss, 2015. "What Drives Financial Inclusion at the Bottom of the Pyramid? Empirical Evidence from Microfinance Panel Data," CFD Working Papers 07-2015, Centre for Finance and Development, The Graduate Institute.
    2. Dakhlia, Sami & Diallo, Boubacar & Temimi, Akram, 2021. "Financial inclusion and ethnic development: Evidence from satellite light density at night," Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Finance, Elsevier, vol. 29(C).
    3. Mushtaq, Rizwan & Bruneau, Catherine, 2019. "Microfinance, financial inclusion and ICT: Implications for poverty and inequality," Technology in Society, Elsevier, vol. 59(C).
    4. Morsy, Hanan, 2020. "Access to finance – Mind the gender gap," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 78(C), pages 12-21.
    5. Brown, M. & de Haas, R. & Sokolov, V., 2013. "Regional Inflation and Financial Dollarization," Discussion Paper 2013-073, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
    6. Saibal Ghosh, 2020. "Access to and use of finance in India: does religion matter?," Indian Economic Review, Springer, vol. 55(1), pages 67-92, June.
    7. Brown, M. & de Haas, R. & Sokolov, V., 2013. "Regional Inflation and Financial Dollarization," Discussion Paper 2013-073, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
    8. Victoria Wanjiku Wokabi & Olanrewaju Isola Fatoki, 2019. "Determinants of Financial Inclusion In East Africa," International Journal of Business and Management, International Institute of Social and Economic Sciences, vol. 7(1), pages 125-143, May.
    9. Kearney, Colm, 2012. "Emerging markets research: Trends, issues and future directions," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 13(2), pages 159-183.
    10. Stix, Helmut, 2013. "Why do people save in cash? Distrust, memories of banking crises, weak institutions and dollarization," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(11), pages 4087-4106.
    11. David, Bounie & Abel, François & Patrick, Waelbroeck, 2016. "Debit card and demand for cash," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 73(C), pages 55-66.
    12. Saibal Ghosh, 0. "Access to and use of finance in India: does religion matter?," Indian Economic Review, Springer, vol. 0, pages 1-26.
    13. Brown, Martin & Lane, Philip R., 2011. "Debt overhang in emerging Europe ?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5784, The World Bank.
    14. Maria Semenova, 2018. "A Bank Run in a Classroom: Do Smart Depositors Withdraw on Time?," HSE Working papers WP BRP 64/FE/2018, National Research University Higher School of Economics.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Access to finance; Bank-ownership; Deposit insurance; Payment system; Creditor protection.;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • C32 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models; Diffusion Processes; State Space Models
    • E52 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - Monetary Policy
    • F41 - International Economics - - Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance - - - Open Economy Macroeconomics

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