IDEAS home Printed from
MyIDEAS: Log in (now much improved!) to save this article

Introducing a Sport Experience Design (SX) framework for sport consumer behaviour research

Listed author(s):
  • Funk, Daniel C.
Registered author(s):

    Sport Management Review celebrates 20 years of publishing research, and this milestone provides an opportunity to reflect on sport consumer research and offer possible directions for scholarship. This article utilizes a panel of 17 academic scholars to examine sport consumer research published in SMR as an exemplar; and then, more broadly, how to enhance sport consumer research and identify future trends in the sport industry. This information, combined with an article analysis, revealed two key findings. First, the quality of scholarship was acknowledged with noted weaknesses related to improving and diversifying methodology, stronger attention to theoretical development, and relevance to industry. Second, traditional boundaries of sport consumer research will expand due to technology, a broadening sport landscape, and links to other academic disciplines. In order to account for industry trends and address noted theoretical limitations, a Sport Experience Design (SX) framework is introduced, which consists of three interrelated elements: (a) the sport context in which a sport consumer navigates through an experience and interacts with touchpoints, (b) the sport user, with mental processes, psychological needs, and personal characteristics, and (c) the sport organization, which produces the sport experience to achieve organizational goals. The framework provides a holistic consumer-centred approach that considers cognitive, organizational, and physical relevant design factors that enhance customer satisfaction and engagement by improving use and pleasure of sport experiences.

    If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.

    Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Sport Management Review.

    Volume (Year): 20 (2017)
    Issue (Month): 2 ()
    Pages: 145-158

    in new window

    Handle: RePEc:eee:spomar:v:20:y:2017:i:2:p:145-158
    DOI: 10.1016/j.smr.2016.11.006
    Contact details of provider: Web page:

    Order Information: Postal:

    References listed on IDEAS
    Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

    in new window

    1. Beaton, Anthony A. & Funk, Daniel C. & Ridinger, Lynn & Jordan, Jeremy, 2011. "Sport involvement: A conceptual and empirical analysis," Sport Management Review, Elsevier, vol. 14(2), pages 126-140, May.
    2. Murray, Duncan & Howat, Gary, 2002. "The Relationships among Service Quality, Value, Satisfaction, and Future Intentions of Customers at an Australian Sports and Leisure Centre," Sport Management Review, Elsevier, vol. 5(1), pages 25-43, May.
    3. Allen, James T. & Drane, Dan D. & Byon, Kevin K. & Mohn, Richard S., 2010. "Sport as a vehicle for socialization and maintenance of cultural identity: International students attending American universities," Sport Management Review, Elsevier, vol. 13(4), pages 421-434, November.
    4. Westerbeek, Hans M. & Shilbury, David, 1999. "Increasing the Focus on "Place" in the Marketing Mix for Facility Dependent Sport Services," Sport Management Review, Elsevier, vol. 2(1), pages 1-23, May.
    5. Gentile, Chiara & Spiller, Nicola & Noci, Giuliano, 2007. "How to Sustain the Customer Experience:: An Overview of Experience Components that Co-create Value With the Customer," European Management Journal, Elsevier, vol. 25(5), pages 395-410, October.
    6. Jae Ko, Yong & Durrant, Sue M. & Mangiantini, John, 2008. "Assessment of Services Provided to NCAA Division I Athletes: Development of a Model and Instrument," Sport Management Review, Elsevier, vol. 11(2), pages 193-214, September.
    7. Richard H. Thaler, 2008. "Mental Accounting and Consumer Choice," Marketing Science, INFORMS, vol. 27(1), pages 15-25, 01-02.
    8. McDonald, Heath & Karg, Adam J. & Vocino, Andrea, 2013. "Measuring season ticket holder satisfaction: Rationale, scale development and longitudinal validation," Sport Management Review, Elsevier, vol. 16(1), pages 41-53.
    9. Baker, Bradley J. & McDonald, Heath & Funk, Daniel C., 2016. "The uniqueness of sport: Testing against marketing's empirical laws," Sport Management Review, Elsevier, vol. 19(4), pages 378-390.
    10. Biscaia, Rui & Ross, Stephen & Yoshida, Masayuki & Correia, Abel & Rosado, António & Marôco, João, 2016. "Investigating the role of fan club membership on perceptions of team brand equity in football," Sport Management Review, Elsevier, vol. 19(2), pages 157-170.
    11. Brown, Graham, 2000. "Emerging Issues in Olympic Sponsorship: Implications for Host Cities," Sport Management Review, Elsevier, vol. 3(1), pages 71-92, May.
    12. Chelladurai, Packianathan & Chang, Kyungro, 2000. "Targets and Standards of Quality in Sport Services," Sport Management Review, Elsevier, vol. 3(1), pages 1-22, May.
    13. Funk, Daniel C. & James, Jeff, 2001. "The Psychological Continuum Model: A Conceptual Framework for Understanding an Individual's Psychological Connection to Sport," Sport Management Review, Elsevier, vol. 4(2), pages 119-150, November.
    14. Chen, Kuan-Ju & Phua, Joe, 2016. "Self-categorization process in sport: An examination of the “Linsanity” phenomenon in Taiwan," Sport Management Review, Elsevier, vol. 19(4), pages 431-440.
    15. Clemes, Michael D. & Brush, Gregory J. & Collins, Mark J., 2011. "Analysing the professional sport experience: A hierarchical approach," Sport Management Review, Elsevier, vol. 14(4), pages 370-388.
    16. Shilbury, David, 2011. "A bibliometric analysis of four sport management journals," Sport Management Review, Elsevier, vol. 14(4), pages 434-452.
    17. Bouchet, Patrick & Bodet, Guillaume & Bernache-Assollant, Iouri & Kada, Faycel, 2011. "Segmenting sport spectators: Construction and preliminary validation of the Sporting Event Experience Search (SEES) scale," Sport Management Review, Elsevier, vol. 14(1), pages 42-53, February.
    18. Theodorakis, Nicholas D. & Alexandris, Kostas & Tsigilis, Nikolaos & Karvounis, Serafim, 2013. "Predicting spectators’ behavioural intentions in professional football: The role of satisfaction and service quality," Sport Management Review, Elsevier, vol. 16(1), pages 85-96.
    19. Casper, Jonathan M. & Gray, Dianna P. & Babkes Stellino, Megan, 2007. "A Sport Commitment Model Perspective on Adult Tennis Players' Participation Frequency and Purchase Intention," Sport Management Review, Elsevier, vol. 10(3), pages 253-278, November.
    20. Lee, Jeoung-Hak & Kim, Hyun-Duck & Ko, Yong Jae & Sagas, Michael, 2011. "The influence of service quality on satisfaction and intention: A gender segmentation strategy," Sport Management Review, Elsevier, vol. 14(1), pages 54-63, February.
    21. Holbrook, Morris B, 1987. " What Is Consumer Research?," Journal of Consumer Research, Oxford University Press, vol. 14(1), pages 128-132, June.
    22. Greenwell, T. Christopher & Fink, Janet S. & Pastore, Donna L., 2002. "Assessing the Influence of the Physical Sports Facility on Customer Satisfaction within the Context of the Service Experience," Sport Management Review, Elsevier, vol. 5(2), pages 129-148, November.
    23. Jae Seo, Won & Christine Green, B. & Jae Ko, Yong & Lee, Seunghwan & Schenewark, Jarrod, 2007. "The Effect of Web Cohesion, Web Commitment, and Attitude toward the Website on Intentions to Use NFL Teams' Websites," Sport Management Review, Elsevier, vol. 10(3), pages 231-252, November.
    24. Lock, Daniel & Darcy, Simon & Taylor, Tracy, 2009. "Starting with a clean slate: An analysis of member identification with a new sports team," Sport Management Review, Elsevier, vol. 12(1), pages 15-25, February.
    25. Howat, Gary & Assaker, Guy, 2016. "Outcome quality in participant sport and recreation service quality models: Empirical results from public aquatic centres in Australia," Sport Management Review, Elsevier, vol. 19(5), pages 520-535.
    26. Funk, Daniel C. & Ridinger, Lynn L. & Moorman, Anita M., 2003. "Understanding Consumer Support: Extending the Sport Interest Inventory (SII) to Examine Individual Differences among Women's Professional Sport Consumers," Sport Management Review, Elsevier, vol. 6(1), pages 1-31, May.
    27. Kim, Min Kil & Zhang, James J. & Ko, Yong Jae, 2009. "Dimensions of Market Demand Associated with Taekwondo Schools in North America: Development of a Scale," Sport Management Review, Elsevier, vol. 12(3), pages 149-166, August.
    28. Christy M.K. Cheung & Gloria W.W. Chan & Moez Limayem, 2005. "A Critical Review of Online Consumer Behavior: Empirical Research," Journal of Electronic Commerce in Organizations (JECO), IGI Global, vol. 3(4), pages 1-19, October.
    29. Yoshida, Masayuki & James, Jeffrey D. & Cronin, J. Joseph, 2013. "Sport event innovativeness: Conceptualization, measurement, and its impact on consumer behavior," Sport Management Review, Elsevier, vol. 16(1), pages 68-84.
    30. Kung, Shia Ping & Taylor, Peter, 2014. "The use of public sports facilities by the disabled in England," Sport Management Review, Elsevier, vol. 17(1), pages 8-22.
    31. O’Reilly, Norm & Berger, Ida E. & Hernandez, Tony & Parent, Milena M. & Séguin, Benoit, 2015. "Urban sportscapes: An environmental deterministic perspective on the management of youth sport participation," Sport Management Review, Elsevier, vol. 18(2), pages 291-307.
    32. Heere, Bob & James, Jeffrey D., 2007. "Stepping Outside the Lines: Developing a Multi-dimensional Team Identity Scale Based on Social Identity Theory," Sport Management Review, Elsevier, vol. 10(1), pages 65-91, May.
    33. Cottingham, Michael & Carroll, Michael S. & Phillips, Dennis & Karadakis, Kostas & Gearity, Brian T. & Drane, Dan, 2014. "Development and validation of the motivation scale for disability sport consumption," Sport Management Review, Elsevier, vol. 17(1), pages 49-64.
    34. Hill, Brad & Christine Green, B., 2000. "Repeat Attendance as a Function of Involvement, Loyalty, and the Sportscape Across Three Football Contexts," Sport Management Review, Elsevier, vol. 3(2), pages 145-162, November.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

    When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:spomar:v:20:y:2017:i:2:p:145-158. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Dana Niculescu)

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

    If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.