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Stepping Outside the Lines: Developing a Multi-dimensional Team Identity Scale Based on Social Identity Theory


  • Heere, Bob
  • James, Jeffrey D.


Within the realm of sport management, team identification, a type of group identity, has been examined as a uni-dimensional construct (Wann & Branscombe, 1993). Research in social psychology, however, has examined group identity as a multi-dimensional concept. The current study examined team identity as a multi-dimensional construct. The TEAM*ID scale was developed based on the work of Ashmore, Deaux, and McLaughlin-Volpe (2004). Initial tests of reliability and validity of the proposed scale were completed based on a pilot study and feedback from an expert panel. Confirmatory factor analysis was performed on data collected from undergraduate students at a large South Eastern university (N=311) to test the group identity constructs. Six dimensions (Public evaluation, Private evaluation, Interconnection of Self, Sense of Interdependence, Behavioural Involvement, and Cognitive Awareness) were retained from the analysis. A comparison of the TEAM*ID scale with a portion of the Collective Self-Esteem Scale (Luhtanen & Crocker, 1992) and a revised version of the Psychological Commitment to Team Scale (Mahony, Madrigal, & Howard, 2000) provided initial evidence of nomological validity.

Suggested Citation

  • Heere, Bob & James, Jeffrey D., 2007. "Stepping Outside the Lines: Developing a Multi-dimensional Team Identity Scale Based on Social Identity Theory," Sport Management Review, Elsevier, vol. 10(1), pages 65-91, May.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:spomar:v:10:y:2007:i:1:p:65-91

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Bearden, William O & Netemeyer, Richard G & Teel, Jesse E, 1989. " Measurement of Consumer Susceptibility to Interpersonal Influence," Journal of Consumer Research, Oxford University Press, vol. 15(4), pages 473-481, March.
    2. Zaichkowsky, Judith Lynne, 1985. " Measuring the Involvement Construct," Journal of Consumer Research, Oxford University Press, vol. 12(3), pages 341-352, December.
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    Cited by:

    1. Funk, Daniel C., 2017. "Introducing a Sport Experience Design (SX) framework for sport consumer behaviour research," Sport Management Review, Elsevier, vol. 20(2), pages 145-158.
    2. Byon, Kevin K. & Zhang, James J. & Connaughton, Daniel P., 2010. "Dimensions of general market demand associated with professional team sports: Development of a scale," Sport Management Review, Elsevier, vol. 13(2), pages 142-157, May.
    3. Walker, Matthew & Heere, Bob, 2011. "Consumer Attitudes toward Responsible Entities in Sport (CARES): Scale development and model testing," Sport Management Review, Elsevier, vol. 14(2), pages 153-166, May.
    4. repec:eee:spomar:v:20:y:2017:i:4:p:408-421 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. Goldsmith, Andrew L. & Walker, Matthew, 2015. "The NASCAR experience: Examining the influence of fantasy sport participation on ‘non-fans’," Sport Management Review, Elsevier, vol. 18(2), pages 231-243.


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