IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Dimensions of general market demand associated with professional team sports: Development of a scale


  • Byon, Kevin K.
  • Zhang, James J.
  • Connaughton, Daniel P.


The purpose of this study was to develop the Scale of Market Demand to assess general market demand factors affecting the consumption of professional team sports, which was completed through the following five steps: (a) formulation of a theoretical framework, (b) development of a preliminary scale, (c) exploratory factor analysis (EFA), (d) confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and (e) examination of predictive validity through conducting a structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis. Following a community intercept method, professional sport consumers (NÂ =Â 453) in four southeastern metropolitan areas responded to the scale. Data were randomly split into two halves: one for EFA and the other for CFA. In the EFA with alpha extraction and promax rotation, six factors with 31 items emerged: opposing team, home team, game promotion, economic consideration, sport epitome, and schedule convenience. In the CFA with maximum likelihood estimation, five factors with 17 most pertinent items were retained, without the sport epitome factor. This five-factor model displayed good fit to the data, discriminant validity, and high reliability. The SEM revealed that home team, opposing team, and game promotion were predictive of game re-attendance behaviour.

Suggested Citation

  • Byon, Kevin K. & Zhang, James J. & Connaughton, Daniel P., 2010. "Dimensions of general market demand associated with professional team sports: Development of a scale," Sport Management Review, Elsevier, vol. 13(2), pages 142-157, May.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:spomar:v:13:y:2010:i:2:p:142-157

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Murray, Duncan & Howat, Gary, 2002. "The Relationships among Service Quality, Value, Satisfaction, and Future Intentions of Customers at an Australian Sports and Leisure Centre," Sport Management Review, Elsevier, vol. 5(1), pages 25-43, May.
    2. Braunstein, Jessica R. & Zhang, James J. & Trail, Galen T. & Gibson, Heather J., 2005. "Dimensions of Market Demand Associated with Pre-season Training: Development of a Scale for Major League Baseball Spring Training," Sport Management Review, Elsevier, vol. 8(3), pages 271-296, November.
    3. Lee Cronbach, 1951. "Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests," Psychometrika, Springer;The Psychometric Society, vol. 16(3), pages 297-334, September.
    4. Mazis, Michael B & Ahtola, Olli T & Klippel, R Eugene, 1975. " A Comparison of Four Multi-Attribute Models in the Prediction of Consumer Attitudes," Journal of Consumer Research, Oxford University Press, vol. 2(1), pages 38-52, June.
    5. Greenwell, T. Christopher & Fink, Janet S. & Pastore, Donna L., 2002. "Assessing the Influence of the Physical Sports Facility on Customer Satisfaction within the Context of the Service Experience," Sport Management Review, Elsevier, vol. 5(2), pages 129-148, November.
    6. Ajzen, Icek, 1991. "The theory of planned behavior," Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Elsevier, vol. 50(2), pages 179-211, December.
    7. Fazio, Russell H & Powell, Martha C & Williams, Carol J, 1989. " The Role of Attitude Accessibility in the Attitude-to-Behavior Process," Journal of Consumer Research, Oxford University Press, vol. 16(3), pages 280-289, December.
    8. Heere, Bob & James, Jeffrey D., 2007. "Stepping Outside the Lines: Developing a Multi-dimensional Team Identity Scale Based on Social Identity Theory," Sport Management Review, Elsevier, vol. 10(1), pages 65-91, May.
    9. Henry Kaiser & John Caffrey, 1965. "Alpha factor analysis," Psychometrika, Springer;The Psychometric Society, vol. 30(1), pages 1-14, March.
    10. Henry Kaiser, 1974. "An index of factorial simplicity," Psychometrika, Springer;The Psychometric Society, vol. 39(1), pages 31-36, March.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Mongeon, Kevin & Winfree, Jason, 2012. "Comparison of television and gate demand in the National Basketball Association," Sport Management Review, Elsevier, vol. 15(1), pages 72-79.
    2. repec:ibn:ijmsjn:v:9:y:2017:i:3:p:39-49 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Cottingham, Michael & Carroll, Michael S. & Phillips, Dennis & Karadakis, Kostas & Gearity, Brian T. & Drane, Dan, 2014. "Development and validation of the motivation scale for disability sport consumption," Sport Management Review, Elsevier, vol. 17(1), pages 49-64.
    4. Lera-López, Fernando & Suárez, María José, 2012. "Deporte activo y pasivo: ¿Una relación de conveniencia?/Active and Passive Sport: Is it a Marriage of Convenience?," Estudios de Economía Aplicada, Estudios de Economía Aplicada, vol. 30, pages 489-512, Agosto.


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:spomar:v:13:y:2010:i:2:p:142-157. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Dana Niculescu). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.