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Dimensions of Market Demand Associated with Pre-season Training: Development of a Scale for Major League Baseball Spring Training


  • Braunstein, Jessica R.
  • Zhang, James J.
  • Trail, Galen T.
  • Gibson, Heather J.


Most professional sports engage in pre-season training and competition, and many international events are preceded by periods of pre-event training and competition. There is often a fan market for such training and competition. Market interest in pre-season training and competition is studied here in the context of Major League Baseball's spring training in Florida. It is noted that pre-season games are different from regular season games insomuch as they are more laid-back, are more affordable, and offer greater access to the athletes. It is also noted that pre-season training and games can serve as tourist attractions. In this study, a 29-item scale is developed that measures eight market demand variables associated with spring training in Florida: home team, opposing team, game promotion, economic consideration, schedule convenience, vacation activity, nostalgic sentiment, and love baseball. The scale is shown to be internally consistent, and the dimensions are shown to be independent. It is suggested that the scale can be used (or adapted) for future research into the bases for fan interest in pre-season or pre-event competitions.

Suggested Citation

  • Braunstein, Jessica R. & Zhang, James J. & Trail, Galen T. & Gibson, Heather J., 2005. "Dimensions of Market Demand Associated with Pre-season Training: Development of a Scale for Major League Baseball Spring Training," Sport Management Review, Elsevier, vol. 8(3), pages 271-296, November.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:spomar:v:8:y:2005:i:3:p:271-296

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. McDonald, Mark & Rascher, Daniel, 2000. "Does Bat Day Make Cents? The Effect of Promotions on the Demand for Major League Baseball," MPRA Paper 25739, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    2. Whitney, James D, 1988. "Winning Games versus Winning Championships: The Economics of Fan Interest and Team Performance," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 26(4), pages 703-724, October.
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    Cited by:

    1. Kim, Min Kil & Zhang, James J. & Ko, Yong Jae, 2009. "Dimensions of Market Demand Associated with Taekwondo Schools in North America: Development of a Scale," Sport Management Review, Elsevier, vol. 12(3), pages 149-166, August.
    2. Byon, Kevin K. & Zhang, James J. & Connaughton, Daniel P., 2010. "Dimensions of general market demand associated with professional team sports: Development of a scale," Sport Management Review, Elsevier, vol. 13(2), pages 142-157, May.


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