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An importance-performance analysis of media activities associated with WNBA game consumption


  • Zhang, James J.
  • Lam, Eddie T.C.
  • Cianfrone, Beth A.
  • Zapalac, Ryan K.
  • Holland, Stephen
  • Williamson, Debbie P.


Since its inception, the WNBA league and its teams have made tremendous efforts to improve their community image through high-quality mass media performance in an effort to promote consumer awareness, interest, and consumption of their game products. However, the relevance and effectiveness of these efforts remains unknown. Due to lack of financial stability, ticket sales, and spectator retention, today WNBA faces great challenges in its sustainability. The purpose of this study was to examine the importance and relevance of mass media performances associated with WNBA game consumption. Through qualitative research procedures, a questionnaire was developed that contained eight media performance, six game consumption, and 10 demographic variables. Following the conceptual framework of the 'expectancy disconfirmation theory', the media performance variables were phrased into two versions: importance and performance. Spectators (NÂ =Â 1431) from five regular season home games of a WNBA team responded to the questionnaire, which was randomly split into two halves: one for EFA and the other for CFA. Two identical factors emerged in the EFA and CFA for the two media performance versions: Visual Media and Audio Media. An EFA was also conducted for the game consumption variables, resulting in one game consumption factor. One-sample t-tests with adjusted alpha level revealed that the mean Visual Media and Audio Media scores in both versions were significantly (pÂ

Suggested Citation

  • Zhang, James J. & Lam, Eddie T.C. & Cianfrone, Beth A. & Zapalac, Ryan K. & Holland, Stephen & Williamson, Debbie P., 2011. "An importance-performance analysis of media activities associated with WNBA game consumption," Sport Management Review, Elsevier, vol. 14(1), pages 64-78, February.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:spomar:v:14:y:2011:i:1:p:64-78

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Murray, Duncan & Howat, Gary, 2002. "The Relationships among Service Quality, Value, Satisfaction, and Future Intentions of Customers at an Australian Sports and Leisure Centre," Sport Management Review, Elsevier, vol. 5(1), pages 25-43, May.
    2. Lee Cronbach, 1951. "Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests," Psychometrika, Springer;The Psychometric Society, vol. 16(3), pages 297-334, September.
    3. Funk, Daniel C. & James, Jeff, 2001. "The Psychological Continuum Model: A Conceptual Framework for Understanding an Individual's Psychological Connection to Sport," Sport Management Review, Elsevier, vol. 4(2), pages 119-150, November.
    4. Henry Kaiser & John Caffrey, 1965. "Alpha factor analysis," Psychometrika, Springer;The Psychometric Society, vol. 30(1), pages 1-14, March.
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