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The Psychological Continuum Model: A Conceptual Framework for Understanding an Individual's Psychological Connection to Sport

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  • Funk, Daniel C.
  • James, Jeff

Abstract

Research on sport spectators and sport fans is examined to develop a model of the psychological connections that individuals experience with sports or sport teams. The Psychological Continuum Model (PCM) is introduced. It provides an extended view of sport spectator and sport fan involvement, and outlines general parameters that may mediate the relationship between an individual and a sport or team. The PCM provides a framework that may account for an individual's movement from initial awareness of a sport or team to eventual allegiance. Four levels are described and differentiated: awareness, attraction, attachment and allegiance. The model proposes that the psychological connections between an individual and a sport or team are governed by the complexity and strengthening of sportrelated mental associations. The PCM provides a model that integrates current research and suggests new directions for future research and applications.

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  • Funk, Daniel C. & James, Jeff, 2001. "The Psychological Continuum Model: A Conceptual Framework for Understanding an Individual's Psychological Connection to Sport," Sport Management Review, Elsevier, vol. 4(2), pages 119-150, November.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:spomar:v:4:y:2001:i:2:p:119-150
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    1. Funk, Daniel C. & Haugtvedt, Curtis P. & Howard, Dennis R., 2000. "Contemporary Attitude Theory in Sport: Theoretical Considerations and Implications," Sport Management Review, Elsevier, vol. 3(2), pages 125-144, November.
    2. Mahony, Daniel F. & Moorman, Anita M., 1999. "The Impact of Fan Attitudes on Intentions to Watch Professional Basketball Teams on Television," Sport Management Review, Elsevier, vol. 2(1), pages 43-66, May.
    3. Schumann, David W & Petty, Richard E & Clemons, D Scott, 1990. " Predicting the Effectiveness of Different Strategies of Advertising Variation: A Test of the Repetition-Variation Hypotheses," Journal of Consumer Research, Oxford University Press, vol. 17(2), pages 192-202, September.
    4. Hill, Brad & Christine Green, B., 2000. "Repeat Attendance as a Function of Involvement, Loyalty, and the Sportscape Across Three Football Contexts," Sport Management Review, Elsevier, vol. 3(2), pages 145-162, November.
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