Effective Public Service Advertisements to Attract Volunteers for the Special Olympics: An Elaboration Likelihood Perspective
As many sport organisations are frequently in great need of volunteers, it is important for sport marketers to develop effective public service advertisements (PSAs) to attract volunteers. The purpose of this study was to expand and test a theory of persuasion for PSAs designed to lead people to help with the Special Olympics. More specifically, this study was designed to broaden the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) by incorporating a newly added personality variable, empathic tendency, and to show how this variable affects audiences' information processing of PSAs. In order to test the ELM, a three-way, 2 (empathy: high v low) x 2 (argument quality: strong v weak) x 2 (peripheral cue: celebrity v non-celebrity status) factorial design was used. A total of 102 male and 119 female students participated (nÂ =Â 221). The results indicated that both high empathy subjects and low empathy subjects were motivated to process the persuasive messages, suggesting that both groups followed the central route to processing. Involvement was found to significantly influence the argument processing of low empathy subjects. Celebrity status did not serve as a peripheral cue in this study.
Volume (Year): 11 (2008)
Issue (Month): 2 (September)
|Contact details of provider:|| Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/716936/description#description|
|Order Information:|| Postal: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/716936/bibliographic|
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Aaker, Jennifer L & Williams, Patti, 1998. " Empathy versus Pride: The Influence of Emotional Appeals across Cultures," Journal of Consumer Research, Oxford University Press, vol. 25(3), pages 241-261, December.
- Funk, Daniel C. & Haugtvedt, Curtis P. & Howard, Dennis R., 2000. "Contemporary Attitude Theory in Sport: Theoretical Considerations and Implications," Sport Management Review, Elsevier, vol. 3(2), pages 125-144, November.
- Petty, Richard E & Cacioppo, John T & Schumann, David, 1983. " Central and Peripheral Routes to Advertising Effectiveness: The Moderating Role of Involvement," Journal of Consumer Research, Oxford University Press, vol. 10(2), pages 135-146, September.
- Calder, Bobby J & Phillips, Lynn W & Tybout, Alice M, 1981. " Designing Research for Application," Journal of Consumer Research, Oxford University Press, vol. 8(2), pages 197-207, September.
- Zaichkowsky, Judith Lynne, 1985. " Measuring the Involvement Construct," Journal of Consumer Research, Oxford University Press, vol. 12(3), pages 341-352, December.
- Escalas, Jennifer Edson & Stern, Barbara B, 2003. " Sympathy and Empathy: Emotional Responses to Advertising Dramas," Journal of Consumer Research, Oxford University Press, vol. 29(4), pages 566-578, March.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:spomar:v:11:y:2008:i:2:p:165-192. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Shamier, Wendy)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.