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Effective Public Service Advertisements to Attract Volunteers for the Special Olympics: An Elaboration Likelihood Perspective


  • Park, Meungguk
  • Turner, Brian A.
  • Pastore, Donna L.


As many sport organisations are frequently in great need of volunteers, it is important for sport marketers to develop effective public service advertisements (PSAs) to attract volunteers. The purpose of this study was to expand and test a theory of persuasion for PSAs designed to lead people to help with the Special Olympics. More specifically, this study was designed to broaden the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) by incorporating a newly added personality variable, empathic tendency, and to show how this variable affects audiences' information processing of PSAs. In order to test the ELM, a three-way, 2 (empathy: high v low) x 2 (argument quality: strong v weak) x 2 (peripheral cue: celebrity v non-celebrity status) factorial design was used. A total of 102 male and 119 female students participated (n = 221). The results indicated that both high empathy subjects and low empathy subjects were motivated to process the persuasive messages, suggesting that both groups followed the central route to processing. Involvement was found to significantly influence the argument processing of low empathy subjects. Celebrity status did not serve as a peripheral cue in this study.

Suggested Citation

  • Park, Meungguk & Turner, Brian A. & Pastore, Donna L., 2008. "Effective Public Service Advertisements to Attract Volunteers for the Special Olympics: An Elaboration Likelihood Perspective," Sport Management Review, Elsevier, vol. 11(2), pages 165-192, September.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:spomar:v:11:y:2008:i:2:p:165-192

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Funk, Daniel C. & Haugtvedt, Curtis P. & Howard, Dennis R., 2000. "Contemporary Attitude Theory in Sport: Theoretical Considerations and Implications," Sport Management Review, Elsevier, vol. 3(2), pages 125-144, November.
    2. Escalas, Jennifer Edson & Stern, Barbara B, 2003. " Sympathy and Empathy: Emotional Responses to Advertising Dramas," Journal of Consumer Research, Oxford University Press, vol. 29(4), pages 566-578, March.
    3. Calder, Bobby J & Phillips, Lynn W & Tybout, Alice M, 1981. " Designing Research for Application," Journal of Consumer Research, Oxford University Press, vol. 8(2), pages 197-207, September.
    4. Aaker, Jennifer L & Williams, Patti, 1998. " Empathy versus Pride: The Influence of Emotional Appeals across Cultures," Journal of Consumer Research, Oxford University Press, vol. 25(3), pages 241-261, December.
    5. Zaichkowsky, Judith Lynne, 1985. " Measuring the Involvement Construct," Journal of Consumer Research, Oxford University Press, vol. 12(3), pages 341-352, December.
    6. Petty, Richard E & Cacioppo, John T & Schumann, David, 1983. " Central and Peripheral Routes to Advertising Effectiveness: The Moderating Role of Involvement," Journal of Consumer Research, Oxford University Press, vol. 10(2), pages 135-146, September.
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    Cited by:

    1. Wicker, Pamela & Breuer, Christoph, 2014. "Exploring the organizational capacity and organizational problems of disability sport clubs in Germany using matched pairs analysis," Sport Management Review, Elsevier, vol. 17(1), pages 23-34.
    2. repec:eee:spomar:v:20:y:2017:i:4:p:325-337 is not listed on IDEAS


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