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Contemporary Attitude Theory in Sport: Theoretical Considerations and Implications


  • Funk, Daniel C.
  • Haugtvedt, Curtis P.
  • Howard, Dennis R.


Although the attitude construct has received considerable attention in the social psychological literature, its application to better understand how people form strong, stable and continuous involvement with athletic teams remains largely unexplored. Following a review of attitude strength research in other disciplines, previous methods used to investigate attitudes in the leisure and sport literatures are reviewed. Based on this review, a framework for the study of attitudes is discussed for understanding allegiance to sport teams. This framework includes a description of the structural relations among various attitude properties and their likely influences on the persistence of attitudes over time, resistance of attitudes in the face of challenges, thoughts about the attitude object, and the likelihood of attitudes influencing behaviour. It is suggested that consideration of attitude strength issues may allow sport managers to better understand how attitudes may be formed toward teams, and may provide insights into how to manage fan loyalty.

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  • Funk, Daniel C. & Haugtvedt, Curtis P. & Howard, Dennis R., 2000. "Contemporary Attitude Theory in Sport: Theoretical Considerations and Implications," Sport Management Review, Elsevier, vol. 3(2), pages 125-144, November.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:spomar:v:3:y:2000:i:2:p:125-144

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Celsi, Richard L & Olson, Jerry C, 1988. " The Role of Involvement in Attention and Comprehension Processes," Journal of Consumer Research, Oxford University Press, vol. 15(2), pages 210-224, September.
    2. Haugtvedt, Curtis P & Wegener, Duane T, 1994. " Message Order Effects in Persuasion: An Attitude Strength Perspective," Journal of Consumer Research, Oxford University Press, vol. 21(1), pages 205-218, June.
    3. Mahony, Daniel F. & Moorman, Anita M., 1999. "The Impact of Fan Attitudes on Intentions to Watch Professional Basketball Teams on Television," Sport Management Review, Elsevier, vol. 2(1), pages 43-66, May.
    4. Schumann, David W & Petty, Richard E & Clemons, D Scott, 1990. " Predicting the Effectiveness of Different Strategies of Advertising Variation: A Test of the Repetition-Variation Hypotheses," Journal of Consumer Research, Oxford University Press, vol. 17(2), pages 192-202, September.
    5. Haugtvedt, Curtis P, et al, 1994. " Advertising Repetition and Variation Strategies: Implications for Understanding Attitude Strength," Journal of Consumer Research, Oxford University Press, vol. 21(1), pages 176-189, June.
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    Cited by:

    1. Funk, Daniel C. & Pritchard, Mark P., 2006. "Sport publicity: Commitment's moderation of message effects," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 59(5), pages 613-621, May.
    2. Funk, Daniel C. & James, Jeff, 2001. "The Psychological Continuum Model: A Conceptual Framework for Understanding an Individual's Psychological Connection to Sport," Sport Management Review, Elsevier, vol. 4(2), pages 119-150, November.
    3. repec:eee:touman:v:34:y:2013:i:c:p:80-90 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. Park, Meungguk & Turner, Brian A. & Pastore, Donna L., 2008. "Effective Public Service Advertisements to Attract Volunteers for the Special Olympics: An Elaboration Likelihood Perspective," Sport Management Review, Elsevier, vol. 11(2), pages 165-192, September.
    5. Shilbury, David, 2011. "A bibliometric analysis of four sport management journals," Sport Management Review, Elsevier, vol. 14(4), pages 434-452.
    6. Funk, Daniel C. & James, Jeffrey D., 2004. "The Fan Attitude Network (FAN) Model: Exploring Attitude Formation and Change among Sport Consumers," Sport Management Review, Elsevier, vol. 7(1), pages 1-26, May.
    7. Doherty, Alison, 2013. "Investing in sport management: The value of good theory," Sport Management Review, Elsevier, vol. 16(1), pages 5-11.

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