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Too big to fail: Some empirical evidence on the causes and consequences of public banking interventions in the UK


  • Rose, Andrew K.
  • Wieladek, Tomasz


During the 2007–09 financial crisis, the banking sector received an extraordinary level of public support. In this empirical paper, we examine the determinants of a number of public sector interventions: government funding or central bank liquidity insurance schemes, public capital injections, and nationalizations. We use bank-level data spanning all British and foreign banks operating within the United Kingdom. We use multinomial logit regression techniques and find that a bank's size, relative to the size of the entire banking system, typically has a large positive and non-linear effect on the probability of public sector intervention for a bank. We also use instrumental variable techniques to show that British interventions helped; there is fragile evidence that the wholesale (non-core) funding of an affected institution increased significantly following capital injection or nationalization.

Suggested Citation

  • Rose, Andrew K. & Wieladek, Tomasz, 2012. "Too big to fail: Some empirical evidence on the causes and consequences of public banking interventions in the UK," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 31(8), pages 2038-2051.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:jimfin:v:31:y:2012:i:8:p:2038-2051 DOI: 10.1016/j.jimonfin.2012.05.011

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Honohan, Patrick & Klingebiel, Daniela, 2003. "The fiscal cost implications of an accommodating approach to banking crises," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 27(8), pages 1539-1560, August.
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    Cited by:

    1. Claudia Buch & Catherine Koch & Michael Koetter, 2016. "Crises and rescues: liquidity transmission through international banks," BIS Working Papers 576, Bank for International Settlements.
    2. Irina Petkova Kazandjieva-Yordanova, 2017. "Does the Too Big to Fail Doctrine Have a Future?," Economic Alternatives, University of National and World Economy, Sofia, Bulgaria, issue 1, pages 51-78, March.
    3. Hryckiewicz, Aneta, 2014. "The problem with government interventions: The wrong banks, inadequate strategies, or ineffective measures?," MPRA Paper 64074, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    4. repec:eee:finlet:v:22:y:2017:i:c:p:74-80 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. Adrian Van Rixtel & Luna Romo González & Jing Yang, 2015. "The determinants of long-term debt issuance by European banks: evidence of two crises," BIS Working Papers 513, Bank for International Settlements.
    6. Brei, Michael & Schclarek, Alfredo, 2013. "Public bank lending in times of crisis," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 9(4), pages 820-830.
    7. Claudia M Buch & Linda S Goldberg, 2015. "International Banking and Liquidity Risk Transmission: Lessons from Across Countries," IMF Economic Review, Palgrave Macmillan;International Monetary Fund, vol. 63(3), pages 377-410, November.
    8. Shekhar Aiyar & Charles W. Calomiris & Tomasz Wieladek, 2015. "How to Strengthen the Regulation of Bank Capital: Theory, Evidence, and A Proposal," Journal of Applied Corporate Finance, Morgan Stanley, vol. 27(1), pages 27-36, March.
    9. Stefan Avdjiev & Elod Takats, 2016. "Monetary policy spillovers and currency networks in cross-border bank lending," BIS Working Papers 549, Bank for International Settlements.
    10. Hryckiewicz, Aneta, 2014. "What do we know about the impact of government interventions in the banking sector? An assessment of various bailout programs on bank behavior," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 46(C), pages 246-265.
    11. Aizenman, Joshua & Dekle, Robert & Lothian, James R., 2012. "Overview of the special issue on “Policy Implications of and Lessons from the Global Financial Crisis”," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 31(8), pages 1971-1975.
    12. Alin-Marius ANDRIEȘ & Florentina IEȘAN-MUNTEAN & Simona NISTOR, 2016. "The effectiveness of policy interventions in CEE countries," Eastern Journal of European Studies, Centre for European Studies, Alexandru Ioan Cuza University, vol. 7, pages 93-124, June.
    13. Gerhardt, Maria & Vennet, Rudi Vander, 2017. "Bank bailouts in Europe and bank performance," Finance Research Letters, Elsevier, vol. 22(C), pages 74-80.
    14. De Caux, Robert & McGroarty, Frank & Brede, Markus, 2017. "The evolution of risk and bailout strategy in banking systems," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 468(C), pages 109-118.
    15. Francis, William, 2014. "UK deposit-taker responses to the financial crisis: what are the lessons?," Bank of England working papers 501, Bank of England.

    More about this item


    Nationalization; Capital injection; Liquidity; Crisis; Foreign; Empirical; Data; Logit;

    JEL classification:

    • G38 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Government Policy and Regulation


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