IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/jbfina/v112y2020ics0378426618300128.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Stock extreme illiquidity and the cost of capital

Author

Listed:
  • Belkhir, Mohamed
  • Saad, Mohsen
  • Samet, Anis

Abstract

We examine the relationship between stock extreme illiquidity and the implied cost of capital for firms from 45 countries. We document robust evidence that firms whose stocks have a greater potential for extreme illiquidity realizations suffer from higher cost of capital. A one standard deviation increase in a stock's liquidity tail index leads to a rise of 30 basis points in the cost of equity. The reported evidence for stock extreme illiquidity is independent of the systematic extreme liquidity risk and extends to alternative cost-percent liquidity proxies. We further find that this relation is stronger in periods of down markets and high volatility and is weaker in environments with better information quality and stronger investor protection.

Suggested Citation

  • Belkhir, Mohamed & Saad, Mohsen & Samet, Anis, 2020. "Stock extreme illiquidity and the cost of capital," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 112(C).
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:jbfina:v:112:y:2020:i:c:s0378426618300128
    DOI: 10.1016/j.jbankfin.2018.01.005
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378426618300128
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    File URL: https://libkey.io/10.1016/j.jbankfin.2018.01.005?utm_source=ideas
    LibKey link: if access is restricted and if your library uses this service, LibKey will redirect you to where you can use your library subscription to access this item
    ---><---

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Acharya, Viral V. & Pedersen, Lasse Heje, 2005. "Asset pricing with liquidity risk," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 77(2), pages 375-410, August.
    2. del Castillo, Joan & Daoudi, Jalila, 2009. "Estimation of the generalized Pareto distribution," Statistics & Probability Letters, Elsevier, vol. 79(5), pages 684-688, March.
    3. Amihud, Yakov & Mendelson, Haim & Pedersen, Lasse Heje, 2006. "Liquidity and Asset Prices," Foundations and Trends(R) in Finance, now publishers, vol. 1(4), pages 269-364, February.
    4. Fama, Eugene F & French, Kenneth R, 1992. "The Cross-Section of Expected Stock Returns," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 47(2), pages 427-465, June.
    5. Robert M. Bushman & Joseph D. Piotroski & Abbie J. Smith, 2004. "What Determines Corporate Transparency?," Journal of Accounting Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 42(2), pages 207-252, May.
    6. Amihud, Yakov & Hameed, Allaudeen & Kang, Wenjin & Zhang, Huiping, 2015. "The illiquidity premium: International evidence," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 117(2), pages 350-368.
    7. Brennan, Michael J. & Subrahmanyam, Avanidhar, 1996. "Market microstructure and asset pricing: On the compensation for illiquidity in stock returns," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 41(3), pages 441-464, July.
    8. Markus K. Brunnermeier & Lasse Heje Pedersen, 2009. "Market Liquidity and Funding Liquidity," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 22(6), pages 2201-2238, June.
    9. Xavier Gabaix & Parameswaran Gopikrishnan & Vasiliki Plerou & H. Eugene Stanley, 2006. "Institutional Investors and Stock Market Volatility," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 121(2), pages 461-504.
    10. Frankel, Richard & Lee, Charles M. C., 1998. "Accounting valuation, market expectation, and cross-sectional stock returns," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 25(3), pages 283-319, June.
    11. Wurgler, Jeffrey, 2000. "Financial markets and the allocation of capital," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 58(1-2), pages 187-214.
    12. Dan Dhaliwal & Shane Heitzman & Oliver Zhen Li, 2006. "Taxes, Leverage, and the Cost of Equity Capital," Journal of Accounting Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 44(4), pages 691-723, September.
    13. Campbell, John Y, 1996. "Understanding Risk and Return," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 104(2), pages 298-345, April.
    14. Stephen Morris & Hyun Song Shin, 2004. "Liquidity Black Holes," Review of Finance, European Finance Association, vol. 8(1), pages 1-18.
    15. Allaudeen Hameed & Wenjin Kang & S. Viswanathan, 2010. "Stock Market Declines and Liquidity," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 65(1), pages 257-293, February.
    16. Ľuboš Pástor & Meenakshi Sinha & Bhaskaran Swaminathan, 2008. "Estimating the Intertemporal Risk–Return Tradeoff Using the Implied Cost of Capital," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 63(6), pages 2859-2897, December.
    17. Luzi Hail & Christian Leuz, 2006. "International Differences in the Cost of Equity Capital: Do Legal Institutions and Securities Regulation Matter?," Journal of Accounting Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 44(3), pages 485-531, June.
    18. Amihud, Yakov, 2002. "Illiquidity and stock returns: cross-section and time-series effects," Journal of Financial Markets, Elsevier, vol. 5(1), pages 31-56, January.
    19. Shane A. Corwin & Paul Schultz, 2012. "A Simple Way to Estimate Bid‐Ask Spreads from Daily High and Low Prices," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 67(2), pages 719-760, April.
    20. Attig, Najah & Fong, Wai-Ming & Gadhoum, Yoser & Lang, Larry H.P., 2006. "Effects of large shareholding on information asymmetry and stock liquidity," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 30(10), pages 2875-2892, October.
    21. Kingsley Y. L. Fong & Craig W. Holden & Charles A. Trzcinka, 2017. "What Are the Best Liquidity Proxies for Global Research?," Review of Finance, European Finance Association, vol. 21(4), pages 1355-1401.
    22. Kothari, S. P., 2001. "Capital markets research in accounting," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(1-3), pages 105-231, September.
    23. Dang, Tung Lam & Moshirian, Fariborz & Wee, Claudia Koon Ghee & Zhang, Bohui, 2015. "Cross-listings and liquidity commonality around the world," Journal of Financial Markets, Elsevier, vol. 22(C), pages 1-26.
    24. Korajczyk, Robert A. & Sadka, Ronnie, 2008. "Pricing the commonality across alternative measures of liquidity," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 87(1), pages 45-72, January.
    25. Karolyi, G. Andrew & Lee, Kuan-Hui & van Dijk, Mathijs A., 2012. "Understanding commonality in liquidity around the world," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 105(1), pages 82-112.
    26. Thomas Werner & Christian Upper, 2004. "Time variation in the tail behavior of Bund future returns," Journal of Futures Markets, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 24(4), pages 387-398, April.
    27. Geert Bekaert & Campbell R. Harvey & Christian Lundblad, 2007. "Liquidity and Expected Returns: Lessons from Emerging Markets," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 20(6), pages 1783-1831, November.
    28. Lee, Kuan-Hui, 2011. "The world price of liquidity risk," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 99(1), pages 136-161, January.
    29. Bryan Kelly & Hao Jiang, 2014. "Editor's Choice Tail Risk and Asset Prices," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 27(10), pages 2841-2871.
    30. Gromb, Denis & Vayanos, Dimitri, 2002. "Equilibrium and welfare in markets with financially constrained arbitrageurs," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 66(2-3), pages 361-407.
    31. William F. Sharpe, 1964. "Capital Asset Prices: A Theory Of Market Equilibrium Under Conditions Of Risk," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 19(3), pages 425-442, September.
    32. Lyle, Matthew R. & Wang, Charles C.Y., 2015. "The cross section of expected holding period returns and their dynamics: A present value approach," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 116(3), pages 505-525.
    33. Venkat R. Eleswarapu & Kumar Venkataraman, 2006. "The Impact of Legal and Political Institutions on Equity Trading Costs: A Cross-Country Analysis," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 19(3), pages 1081-1111.
    34. Akiko Watanabe & Masahiro Watanabe, 2008. "Time-Varying Liquidity Risk and the Cross Section of Stock Returns," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 21(6), pages 2449-2486, November.
    35. Brockman, Paul & Chung, Dennis Y. & Pérignon, Christophe, 2009. "Commonality in Liquidity: A Global Perspective," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 44(4), pages 851-882, August.
    36. Djankov, Simeon & La Porta, Rafael & Lopez-de-Silanes, Florencio & Shleifer, Andrei, 2008. "The law and economics of self-dealing," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 88(3), pages 430-465, June.
    37. Eleswarapu, Venkat R, 1997. "Cost of Transacting and Expected Returns in the Nasdaq Market," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 52(5), pages 2113-2127, December.
    38. Chung, Kee H. & Zhang, Hao, 2014. "A simple approximation of intraday spreads using daily data," Journal of Financial Markets, Elsevier, vol. 17(C), pages 94-120.
    39. Karthik Balakrishnan & Mary Brooke Billings & Bryan Kelly & Alexander Ljungqvist, 2014. "Shaping Liquidity: On the Causal Effects of Voluntary Disclosure," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 69(5), pages 2237-2278, October.
    40. Liu, Weimin, 2006. "A liquidity-augmented capital asset pricing model," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 82(3), pages 631-671, December.
    41. Chen, Kevin C. W. & Chen, Zhihong & Wei, K. C. John, 2011. "Agency Costs of Free Cash Flow and the Effect of Shareholder Rights on the Implied Cost of Equity Capital," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 46(1), pages 171-207, February.
    42. Pastor, Lubos & Stambaugh, Robert F., 2003. "Liquidity Risk and Expected Stock Returns," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 111(3), pages 642-685, June.
    43. Li, Yan & Ng, David T. & Swaminathan, Bhaskaran, 2013. "Predicting market returns using aggregate implied cost of capital," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 110(2), pages 419-436.
    44. Sean A. Anthonisz & Tālis J. Putniņš, 2017. "Asset Pricing with Downside Liquidity Risks," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 63(8), pages 2549-2572, August.
    45. Kyle, Albert S, 1985. "Continuous Auctions and Insider Trading," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 53(6), pages 1315-1335, November.
    46. Amihud, Yakov & Mendelson, Haim, 1986. "Asset pricing and the bid-ask spread," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 17(2), pages 223-249, December.
    47. Markus K. Brunnermeier, 2009. "Deciphering the Liquidity and Credit Crunch 2007-2008," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 23(1), pages 77-100, Winter.
    48. Goyenko, Ruslan Y. & Holden, Craig W. & Trzcinka, Charles A., 2009. "Do liquidity measures measure liquidity?," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 92(2), pages 153-181, May.
    49. Hail, Luzi & Leuz, Christian, 2009. "Cost of capital effects and changes in growth expectations around U.S. cross-listings," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 93(3), pages 428-454, September.
    50. Carmela Quintos & Zhenhong Fan & Peter C. B. Phillips, 2001. "Structural Change Tests in Tail Behaviour and the Asian Crisis," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 68(3), pages 633-663.
    51. James Claus & Jacob Thomas, 2001. "Equity Premia as Low as Three Percent? Evidence from Analysts' Earnings Forecasts for Domestic and International Stock Markets," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 56(5), pages 1629-1666, October.
    52. Brennan, Michael J. & Chordia, Tarun & Subrahmanyam, Avanidhar, 1998. "Alternative factor specifications, security characteristics, and the cross-section of expected stock returns," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 49(3), pages 345-373, September.
    53. repec:oup:rfinst:v:21:y:2017:i:4:p:1355-1401. is not listed on IDEAS
    54. Lesmond, David A & Ogden, Joseph P & Trzcinka, Charles A, 1999. "A New Estimate of Transaction Costs," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 12(5), pages 1113-1141.
    55. Lang, Mark & Maffett, Mark, 2011. "Transparency and liquidity uncertainty in crisis periods," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 52(2), pages 101-125.
    56. Lin, Ji-Chai & Singh, Ajai K. & Yu, Wen, 2009. "Stock splits, trading continuity, and the cost of equity capital," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 93(3), pages 474-489, September.
    57. William R. Gebhardt & Charles M. C. Lee & Bhaskaran Swaminathan, 2001. "Toward an Implied Cost of Capital," Journal of Accounting Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 39(1), pages 135-176, June.
    58. Hagströmer, Björn & Hansson, Björn & Nilsson, Birger, 2013. "The components of the illiquidity premium: An empirical analysis of US stocks 1927–2010," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(11), pages 4476-4487.
    59. Albert S. Kyle & Wei Xiong, 2001. "Contagion as a Wealth Effect," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 56(4), pages 1401-1440, August.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Jakub Horak & Petr Suler & Jaroslav Kollmann & Jan Marecek, 2020. "Credit Absorption Capacity of Businesses in the Construction Sector of the Czech Republic—Analysis Based on the Difference in Values of EVA Entity and EVA Equity," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 12(21), pages 1-16, October.
    2. Belkhir, Mohamed & Ben Naceur, Sami & Chami, Ralph & Samet, Anis, 2021. "Bank capital and the cost of equity," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 53(C).
    3. Szymon Stereńczak, 2020. "State-Dependent Stock Liquidity Premium: The Case of the Warsaw Stock Exchange," International Journal of Financial Studies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 8(1), pages 1-24, March.
    4. Ramos, Henrique Pinto & Righi, Marcelo Brutti, 2020. "Liquidity, implied volatility and tail risk: A comparison of liquidity measures," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 69(C).

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Saad, Mohsen & Samet, Anis, 2017. "Liquidity and the implied cost of equity capital," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 51(C), pages 15-38.
    2. Wu, Ying, 2019. "Asset pricing with extreme liquidity risk," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 54(C), pages 143-165.
    3. Stereńczak, Szymon & Zaremba, Adam & Umar, Zaghum, 2020. "Is there an illiquidity premium in frontier markets?," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 42(C).
    4. Moshirian, Fariborz & Qian, Xiaolin & Wee, Claudia Koon Ghee & Zhang, Bohui, 2017. "The determinants and pricing of liquidity commonality around the world," Journal of Financial Markets, Elsevier, vol. 33(C), pages 22-41.
    5. Lee, Kuan-Hui, 2011. "The world price of liquidity risk," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 99(1), pages 136-161, January.
    6. Kim, Soon-Ho & Lee, Kuan-Hui, 2014. "Pricing of liquidity risks: Evidence from multiple liquidity measures," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 25(C), pages 112-133.
    7. Craig W. Holden & Stacey Jacobsen & Avanidhar Subrahmanyam, 2014. "The Empirical Analysis of Liquidity," Foundations and Trends(R) in Finance, now publishers, vol. 8(4), pages 263-365, December.
    8. Karolyi, G. Andrew & Lee, Kuan-Hui & van Dijk, Mathijs A., 2012. "Understanding commonality in liquidity around the world," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 105(1), pages 82-112.
    9. Amihud, Yakov & Hameed, Allaudeen & Kang, Wenjin & Zhang, Huiping, 2015. "The illiquidity premium: International evidence," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 117(2), pages 350-368.
    10. Díaz, Antonio & Escribano, Ana, 2020. "Measuring the multi-faceted dimension of liquidity in financial markets: A literature review," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 51(C).
    11. Saad, Mohsen & Samet, Anis, 2015. "Pricing, dynamics, and determinants of illiquidity risks: International evidence," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 23(C), pages 124-147.
    12. Vayanos, Dimitri & Wang, Jiang, 2013. "Market Liquidity—Theory and Empirical Evidence ," Handbook of the Economics of Finance, in: G.M. Constantinides & M. Harris & R. M. Stulz (ed.), Handbook of the Economics of Finance, volume 2, chapter 0, pages 1289-1361, Elsevier.
    13. Ruenzi, Stefan & Ungeheuer, Michael & Weigert, Florian, 2020. "Joint Extreme events in equity returns and liquidity and their cross-sectional pricing implications," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 115(C).
    14. Dang, Tung Lam & Nguyen, Thi Minh Hue, 2020. "Liquidity risk and stock performance during the financial crisis," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 52(C).
    15. Chiu, Junmao & Chung, Huimin, 2019. "Legal institutions and fragile financial markets," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 93(C), pages 277-298.
    16. Rui Ma & Hamish D. Anderson & Ben R. Marshall, 2016. "International stock market liquidity: a review," Managerial Finance, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 42(2), pages 118-135, February.
    17. Saad, Mohsen & Samet, Anis, 2020. "Collectivism and commonality in liquidity," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 116(C), pages 137-162.
    18. Lee, Kuan-Hui & Sapriza, Horacio & Wu, Yangru, 2016. "Sovereign debt ratings and stock liquidity around the World," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 73(C), pages 99-112.
    19. Zhang, Yiming & Wang, Guanying, 2020. "Compensation for illiquidity in China: Evidence from an alternative measure," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 53(C).
    20. Nina Karnaukh & Angelo Ranaldo & Paul Söderlind, 2015. "Understanding FX Liquidity," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 28(11), pages 3073-3108.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Liquidity; Extreme illiquidity; Cost of capital; Market conditions; Institutions;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • G11 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Portfolio Choice; Investment Decisions
    • G12 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Asset Pricing; Trading Volume; Bond Interest Rates
    • G14 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Information and Market Efficiency; Event Studies; Insider Trading
    • G15 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - International Financial Markets
    • F36 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - Financial Aspects of Economic Integration

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:jbfina:v:112:y:2020:i:c:s0378426618300128. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/jbf .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Catherine Liu (email available below). General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/jbf .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.