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Carbon pricing in the EU: Evaluation of different EU ETS reform options

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  • Brink, Corjan
  • Vollebergh, Herman R.J.
  • van der Werf, Edwin

Abstract

This paper studies various options to support allowance prices in the EU Emissions Trading System (ETS), such as adjusting the cap, an auction reserve price, and fixed and variable carbon taxes in addition to the EU ETS. We use a dynamic computable general equilibrium model that explicitly allows for allowance banking and for a detailed cost-effectiveness analysis at the EU Member State level. We find that tightening the cap provides an ad hoc solution to the fundamental issue of the robustness of the effective carbon price, while introducing a price component to the ETS brings structural carbon price support in times of negative demand shocks for emission allowances. These price-based policies still benefit from the intertemporal flexibility through the banking provision in the EU ETS by re-allocating emissions over time with stronger emission reductions in early years and emission increases in later years. A higher emission price has a larger negative impact on the new Member States' economies than on other Member States. Furthermore, introducing a carbon tax in addition to the EU ETS decreases the price of allowances, resulting in welfare gains for net buyers of allowances while net sellers are worse off.

Suggested Citation

  • Brink, Corjan & Vollebergh, Herman R.J. & van der Werf, Edwin, 2016. "Carbon pricing in the EU: Evaluation of different EU ETS reform options," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 97(C), pages 603-617.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:enepol:v:97:y:2016:i:c:p:603-617
    DOI: 10.1016/j.enpol.2016.07.023
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Ian Parry & Herman R. J. Vollebergh, 2016. "Reforming the EU Energy Tax Directive: Assessing the Options," CESifo Working Paper Series 5749, CESifo Group Munich.
    2. Federico Galán-Valdivieso & Elena Villar-Rubio & María-Dolores Huete-Morales, 2018. "The erratic behaviour of the EU ETS on the path towards consolidation and price stability," International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics, Springer, vol. 18(5), pages 689-706, October.
    3. Jie Wu & Ying Fan & Yan Xia, 2017. "How Can China Achieve Its Nationally Determined Contribution Targets Combining Emissions Trading Scheme and Renewable Energy Policies?," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 10(8), pages 1-20, August.
    4. Lin, Boqiang & Jia, Zhijie, 2017. "The impact of Emission Trading Scheme (ETS) and the choice of coverage industry in ETS: A case study in China," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 205(C), pages 1512-1527.
    5. Hájek, Miroslav & Zimmermannová, Jarmila & Helman, Karel & Rozenský, Ladislav, 2019. "Analysis of carbon tax efficiency in energy industries of selected EU countries," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 134(C).
    6. Suphi Sen & Herman R. J. Vollebergh, 2016. "The Effectiveness of Taxing Carbon Content of Energy Consumption," CESifo Working Paper Series 6003, CESifo Group Munich.
    7. Nava, Consuelo R. & Meleo, Linda & Cassetta, Ernesto & Morelli, Giovanna, 2018. "The impact of the EU-ETS on the aviation sector: Competitive effects of abatement efforts by airlines," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 113(C), pages 20-34.
    8. Lintunen, Jussi & Kuusela, Olli-Pekka, 2018. "Business cycles and emission trading with banking," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 101(C), pages 397-417.
    9. Zhang, Lirong & Li, Yakun & Jia, Zhijie, 2018. "Impact of carbon allowance allocation on power industry in China’s carbon trading market: Computable general equilibrium based analysis," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 229(C), pages 814-827.
    10. Sajid, M. Jawad & Cao, Qingren & Kang, Wei, 2019. "Transport sector carbon linkages of EU's top seven emitters," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 80(C), pages 24-38.
    11. Chang-Jing Ji & Yu-Jie Hu & Bao-Jun Tang, 2018. "Research on carbon market price mechanism and influencing factors: a literature review," Natural Hazards: Journal of the International Society for the Prevention and Mitigation of Natural Hazards, Springer;International Society for the Prevention and Mitigation of Natural Hazards, vol. 92(2), pages 761-782, June.
    12. Fang, Guochang & Tian, Lixin & Liu, Menghe & Fu, Min & Sun, Mei, 2018. "How to optimize the development of carbon trading in China—Enlightenment from evolution rules of the EU carbon price," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 211(C), pages 1039-1049.
    13. Sen, Suphi & Vollebergh, Herman, 2018. "The effectiveness of taxing the carbon content of energy consumption," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 92(C), pages 74-99.
    14. Alexander Krenek & Mark Sommer & Margit Schratzenstaller, 2019. "Sustainability-oriented Future EU Funding. A European Border Carbon Adjustment," WIFO Working Papers 587, WIFO.

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