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The effect of financial constraints on energy-climate scenarios


  • Ekholm, Tommi
  • Ghoddusi, Hamed
  • Krey, Volker
  • Riahi, Keywan


In this paper, we discuss the implications of financing constraints for future energy and climate scenarios. Aspirations to improve energy access and electrification rates in developing countries, while simultaneously reducing greenhouse gas emissions, can be seriously hindered by the availability of low-cost capital for the necessary investments. We first provide a brief description of the theoretical foundations for financing constraints in the energy sector. Then, using a broad range of alternate assumptions we introduce capital supply curves to an energy system model for Sub-Saharan Africa, with a specific focus on the power sector. Our results portray the effect of capital cost on technology selection in electricity generation, specifically how limited capital supply decreases investments to capital-intensive zero-emission technologies. As a direct consequence, the emission price required to meet given emission targets is considerably increased when compared to case that disregards the capital constraints. Finally, we discuss possible policy instruments for resolving the constraints.

Suggested Citation

  • Ekholm, Tommi & Ghoddusi, Hamed & Krey, Volker & Riahi, Keywan, 2013. "The effect of financial constraints on energy-climate scenarios," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 59(C), pages 562-572.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:enepol:v:59:y:2013:i:c:p:562-572 DOI: 10.1016/j.enpol.2013.04.001

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    Cited by:

    1. Ng, Thiam Hee & Tao, Jacqueline Yujia, 2016. "Bond financing for renewable energy in Asia," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 95(C), pages 509-517.
    2. Rabab Mudakkar, Syeda & Zaman, Khalid & Shakir, Huma & Arif, Mariam & Naseem, Imran & Naz, Lubna, 2013. "Determinants of energy consumption function in SAARC countries: Balancing the odds," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 28(C), pages 566-574.
    3. Abid, Mehdi, 2016. "Impact of economic, financial, and institutional factors on CO2 emissions: Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa economies," Utilities Policy, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 85-94.
    4. repec:eee:rensus:v:78:y:2017:i:c:p:1367-1377 is not listed on IDEAS

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    Financial constraint; Climate policy; Scenario;


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