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Lowering Saudi Arabia's fuel consumption and energy system costs without increasing end consumer prices

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  • Matar, Walid
  • Murphy, Frederic
  • Pierru, Axel
  • Rioux, Bertrand

Abstract

Using a multi-sector equilibrium model of the Saudi energy system that handles administered prices in a mixed-complementarity formulation, we present results from a set of policy scenarios that lower oil consumption in the country. Some of these scenarios are the solutions to Mathematical Programs subject to Equilibrium Constraints (MPECs) that maximize the net economic gain for the Saudi economy. The policies examined have the potential to generate economic gains exceeding 23 billion USD in 2011, or about 4% of Saudi Arabia's GDP. This economic gain comes mainly from inter-sectoral fuel pricing policies that incent shifting the mix in technologies that generate electricity and produce water from energy intensive technologies to more efficient ones. We show that when complemented by credits for investments in solar and nuclear power generation capacities, a modest increase in the transfer prices of fuels among sectors is sufficient to produce economic gains close to those achieved by deregulating transfer prices. The approach we develop here is an alternative to the classic recommendation of deregulating inter-sectoral fuel prices in situations where the conditions for successful liberalized markets do not exist. It is a template for introducing the notions of incentivizing behavior using prices into countries that rely more on administrative procedures than markets, leading to a deeper understanding of how markets can lead to economic gain.

Suggested Citation

  • Matar, Walid & Murphy, Frederic & Pierru, Axel & Rioux, Bertrand, 2015. "Lowering Saudi Arabia's fuel consumption and energy system costs without increasing end consumer prices," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 49(C), pages 558-569.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:eneeco:v:49:y:2015:i:c:p:558-569
    DOI: 10.1016/j.eneco.2015.03.019
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    Cited by:

    1. Rioux, Bertrand & Galkin, Philipp & Murphy, Frederic & Feijoo, Felipe & Pierru, Axel & Malov, Artem & Li, Yan & Wu, Kang, 2019. "The economic impact of price controls on China's natural gas supply chain," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 80(C), pages 394-410.
    2. Murphy, Frederic & Pierru, Axel & Smeers, Yves, 2019. "Measuring the effects of price controls using mixed complementarity models," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 275(2), pages 666-676.
    3. Soummane, Salaheddine & Ghersi, Frédéric & Lefèvre, Julien, 2019. "Macroeconomic pathways of the Saudi economy: The challenge of global mitigation action versus the opportunity of national energy reforms," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 130(C), pages 263-282.
    4. Jorge Blazquez, Lester C Hunt, and Baltasar Manzano, 2017. "Oil Subsidies and Renewable Energy in Saudi Arabia: A General Equilibrium Approach," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(KAPSARC S).
    5. Philipp M. Richter & Roman Mendelevitch & Frank Jotzo, 2018. "Coal taxes as supply-side climate policy: a rationale for major exporters?," Climatic Change, Springer, vol. 150(1), pages 43-56, September.
    6. Bertrand Rioux, Philipp Galkin, Frederic Murphy, and Axel Pierru, 2017. "How do Price Caps in Chinas Electricity Sector Impact the Economics of Coal, Power and Wind? Potential Gains from Reforms," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(KAPSARC S).
    7. Yahya Z. Alharthi & Mahbube K. Siddiki & Ghulam M. Chaudhry, 2018. "Resource Assessment and Techno-Economic Analysis of a Grid-Connected Solar PV-Wind Hybrid System for Different Locations in Saudi Arabia," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 10(10), pages 1-1, October.
    8. Matar, Walid & Murphy, Frederic & Pierru, Axel & Rioux, Bertrand & Wogan, David, 2017. "Efficient industrial energy use: The first step in transitioning Saudi Arabia's energy mix," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 105(C), pages 80-92.
    9. Griffiths, Steven, 2017. "A review and assessment of energy policy in the Middle East and North Africa region," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 102(C), pages 249-269.
    10. Lopez-Ruiz, Hector G. & Blazquez, Jorge & Vittorio, Michele, 2020. "Assessing residential solar rooftop potential in Saudi Arabia using nighttime satellite images: A study for the city of Riyadh," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 140(C).

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Saudi Arabia; Power; Oil; Subsidies; Modeling; MPEC;

    JEL classification:

    • C61 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Mathematical Methods; Programming Models; Mathematical and Simulation Modeling - - - Optimization Techniques; Programming Models; Dynamic Analysis
    • D43 - Microeconomics - - Market Structure, Pricing, and Design - - - Oligopoly and Other Forms of Market Imperfection
    • H25 - Public Economics - - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue - - - Business Taxes and Subsidies
    • L11 - Industrial Organization - - Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance - - - Production, Pricing, and Market Structure; Size Distribution of Firms
    • Q32 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Nonrenewable Resources and Conservation - - - Exhaustible Resources and Economic Development
    • Q48 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy - - - Government Policy

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