Multiscale entropy analysis of crude oil price dynamics
Price formation in crude oil markets is the result of the action of many participants (e.g., producers, governments, speculators, etc.) whose effects are perceived at different time scales, from days to years. The diversity of participants as well as the occurrence of extreme socio-political events yields a market with complex price evolution. This paper uses entropy methods to monitor the evolution of crude oil price movements. As the complexity of the price can depend of the time horizon, entropy computations are performed for different time scales via low-pass filtering of the price difference dynamics. The results are interpreted in term of relative market efficiency concepts in the sense that high entropy values should be related to a more complex and, hence, less predictable market evolution. It is shown that the highest market efficiency is found for small time scales up to one or two weeks. The multiscale entropy pattern for high time scales, longer than one quarter, is interesting as it shows alternating periods of high and low entropy levels. Interestingly, this alternating pattern has a dominant spectral component of about 4.3Â years, which could be related to macroeconomic (Kitchin) business cycles. It is shown that U.S. recessions in the recent 25Â years are coincident with periods of reduced entropy levels, meaning that during economic downturn the long-run market complexity is drastically reduced. The possible effects of extreme events (e.g., Iraq War) are analyzed in terms of the relative market efficiency, suggesting that some events have affected the short-term but not the long-term market complexity. Overall, these results show that methods based on entropy concepts can shed light on the structure of crude oil markets as well as on its link to macroeconomic conditions and socio-political extreme events.
If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Mork, Knut Anton, 1989. "Oil and Macroeconomy When Prices Go Up and Down: An Extension of Hamilton's Results," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 97(3), pages 740-44, June.
- Hamilton, James D., 2003.
"What is an oil shock?,"
Journal of Econometrics,
Elsevier, vol. 113(2), pages 363-398, April.
- Juncal Cuñado & Fernando Pérez de Gracia, 2001.
"Do oil price shocks matter? Evidence for some European countries,"
01-02, Asociación Española de Economía y Finanzas Internacionales.
- Cunado, Juncal & Perez de Gracia, Fernando, 2003. "Do oil price shocks matter? Evidence for some European countries," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 25(2), pages 137-154, March.
- Juncal Cuñado & Fernando Pérez de Gracia, . "Do Oil Price Shocks Matter? Evidence For Some Europesan Countries," Working Papers on International Economics and Finance 01-02, FEDEA.
- Ben S. Bernanke, 1983. "Irreversibility, Uncertainty, and Cyclical Investment," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 98(1), pages 85-106.
- Sergio Da Silva & Raul Matsushita & Ricardo Giglio, 2008. "The relative efficiency of stockmarkets," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 7(6), pages 1-12.
- Jushan Bai & Pierre Perron, 1998.
"Estimating and Testing Linear Models with Multiple Structural Changes,"
Econometric Society, vol. 66(1), pages 47-78, January.
- Perron, P. & Bai, J., 1995. "Estimating and Testing Linear Models with Multiple Structural Changes," Cahiers de recherche 9552, Universite de Montreal, Departement de sciences economiques.
- Perron, P. & Bai, J., 1995. "Estimating and Testing Linear Models with Multiple Structural Changes," Cahiers de recherche 9552, Centre interuniversitaire de recherche en économie quantitative, CIREQ.
- Lutz Kilian, 2009.
"Not All Oil Price Shocks Are Alike: Disentangling Demand and Supply Shocks in the Crude Oil Market,"
American Economic Review,
American Economic Association, vol. 99(3), pages 1053-69, June.
- Kilian, Lutz, 2006. "Not All Oil Price Shocks Are Alike: Disentangling Demand and Supply Shocks in the Crude Oil Market," CEPR Discussion Papers 5994, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Fama, Eugene F, 1970. "Efficient Capital Markets: A Review of Theory and Empirical Work," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 25(2), pages 383-417, May.
- Lee, Chien-Chiang & Lee, Jun-De, 2009. "Energy prices, multiple structural breaks, and efficient market hypothesis," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 86(4), pages 466-479, April.
- Alvarez-Ramirez, Jose & Cisneros, Myriam & Ibarra-Valdez, Carlos & Soriano, Angel, 2002. "Multifractal Hurst analysis of crude oil prices," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 313(3), pages 651-670.
- Charles, Amélie & Darné, Olivier, 2009.
"The efficiency of the crude oil markets: Evidence from variance ratio tests,"
Elsevier, vol. 37(11), pages 4267-4272, November.
- Amélie Charles & Olivier Darné, 2009. "The efficiency of the crude oil markets: Evidence from variance ratio tests," Post-Print hal-00771081, HAL.
- Farzanegan, Mohammad Reza & Markwardt, Gunther, 2009.
"The effects of oil price shocks on the Iranian economy,"
Elsevier, vol. 31(1), pages 134-151, January.
- Mohammad Reza FARZANEGAN & Gunther MARKWARDT, . "The Effects of Oil Price Shocks on the Iranian Economy," EcoMod2008 23800037, EcoMod.
- Farzanegan, Mohammad Reza & Markwardt, Gunther, 2008. "The effects of oil price shocks on the Iranian economy," Dresden Discussion Paper Series in Economics 15/08, Technische Universität Dresden, Faculty of Business and Economics, Department of Economics.
- Oladosu, Gbadebo, 2009. "Identifying the oil price-macroeconomy relationship: An empirical mode decomposition analysis of US data," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(12), pages 5417-5426, December.
- Wiston Adrian Risso, 2009. "The informational efficiency: the emerging markets versus the developed markets," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 16(5), pages 485-487.
- Gisser, Micha & Goodwin, Thomas H, 1986. "Crude Oil and the Macroeconomy: Tests of Some Popular Notions: A Note," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 18(1), pages 95-103, February.
- Eduardo Schwartz & James E. Smith, 2000. "Short-Term Variations and Long-Term Dynamics in Commodity Prices," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 46(7), pages 893-911, July.
- Bernanke, Ben S. & Gertler, Mark & Waston, Mark, 1997.
"Systematic Monetary Policy and the Effects of Oil Price Shocks,"
97-25, C.V. Starr Center for Applied Economics, New York University.
- Ben S. Bernanke & Mark Gertler & Mark Watson, 1997. "Systematic Monetary Policy and the Effects of Oil Price Shocks," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 28(1), pages 91-157.
- Chiou, Jer-Shiou & Lee, Yen-Hsien, 2009. "Jump dynamics and volatility: Oil and the stock markets," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 34(6), pages 788-796.
- Alvarez-Ramirez, Jose & Alvarez, Jesus & Rodriguez, Eduardo, 2008. "Short-term predictability of crude oil markets: A detrended fluctuation analysis approach," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(5), pages 2645-2656, September.
- Zhang, Xun & Yu, Lean & Wang, Shouyang & Lai, Kin Keung, 2009. "Estimating the impact of extreme events on crude oil price: An EMD-based event analysis method," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(5), pages 768-778, September.
- Robert B. Barsky & Lutz Kilian, 2004.
"Oil and the Macroeconomy Since the 1970s,"
Journal of Economic Perspectives,
American Economic Association, vol. 18(4), pages 115-134, Fall.
- Carruth, A.A. & Hooker, M.A. & Oswald, A.J., 1998.
"Unemployment Equilibria and Input Prices: Theory and Evidence from the United States,"
The Warwick Economics Research Paper Series (TWERPS)
496, University of Warwick, Department of Economics.
- Alan A. Carruth & Mark A. Hooker & Andrew J. Oswald, 1998. "Unemployment Equilibria And Input Prices: Theory And Evidence From The United States," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 80(4), pages 621-628, November.
- Carruth,a. & Hooker, N. & Oswald,A., 1997. "Unemployment Equilibria and Input Prices: Theory and Evidence from the United States," Papers 22, Centre for Economic Performance & Institute of Economics.
- Rotemberg, Julio J & Woodford, Michael, 1996.
"Imperfect Competition and the Effects of Energy Price Increases on Economic Activity,"
Journal of Money, Credit and Banking,
Blackwell Publishing, vol. 28(4), pages 550-77, November.
- Julio J. Rotemberg & Michael Woodford, 1996. "Imperfect Competition and the Effects of Energy Price Increases on Economic Activity," NBER Working Papers 5634, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Kasparian, Jérôme, 2009. "Contribution of crude oil price to households' budget: The weight of indirect energy use," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(1), pages 111-114, January.
- Alvarez-Ramirez, Jose & Alvarez, Jesus & Solis, Ricardo, 2010. "Crude oil market efficiency and modeling: Insights from the multiscaling autocorrelation pattern," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(5), pages 993-1000, September.
- Antonio Merino & Alvaro Ortiz, 2005. "Explaining the so-called "price premium" in oil markets," OPEC Energy Review, Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries, vol. 29(2), pages 133-152, 06.
- Apostolos Serletis & Ioannis Andreadis, 2007.
"Random Fractal Structures in North American Energy Markets,"
World Scientific Book Chapters,
in: Quantitative And Empirical Analysis Of Energy Markets, chapter 18, pages 245-255
World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
- Serletis, Apostolos & Andreadis, Ioannis, 2004. "Random fractal structures in North American energy markets," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 26(3), pages 389-399, May.
- James D. Hamilton, 2008.
"Understanding Crude Oil Prices,"
NBER Working Papers
14492, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Robert S. Pindyck, 1999.
"The Long-Run Evolutions of Energy Prices,"
The Energy Journal,
International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 2), pages 1-27.
- Zunino, Luciano & Zanin, Massimiliano & Tabak, Benjamin M. & Pérez, Darío G. & Rosso, Osvaldo A., 2009. "Forbidden patterns, permutation entropy and stock market inefficiency," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 388(14), pages 2854-2864.
- Shambora, William E. & Rossiter, Rosemary, 2007. "Are there exploitable inefficiencies in the futures market for oil?," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 29(1), pages 18-27, January.
- He, Yanan & Wang, Shouyang & Lai, Kin Keung, 2010. "Global economic activity and crude oil prices: A cointegration analysis," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(4), pages 868-876, July.
- Kaufmann, Robert K., 2011. "The role of market fundamentals and speculation in recent price changes for crude oil," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(1), pages 105-115, January.
- Oh, Gabjin & Kim, Seunghwan & Eom, Cheoljun, 2007. "Market efficiency in foreign exchange markets," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 382(1), pages 209-212.
- Robert H. Rasche & John A. Tatom, 1977. "Energy resources and potential GNP," Review, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, issue Jun, pages 10-24.
- Darbellay, Georges A & Wuertz, Diethelm, 2000. "The entropy as a tool for analysing statistical dependences in financial time series," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 287(3), pages 429-439.
- Wang, Yudong & Liu, Li, 2010. "Is WTI crude oil market becoming weakly efficient over time?: New evidence from multiscale analysis based on detrended fluctuation analysis," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(5), pages 987-992, September.
- Robert S. Pindyck, 2001. "The Dynamics of Commodity Spot and Futures Markets: A Primer," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 3), pages 1-30.
- repec:ebl:ecbull:v:7:y:2008:i:6:p:1-12 is not listed on IDEAS
- Lee, Yen-Hsien & Hu, Hsu-Ning & Chiou, Jer-Shiou, 2010. "Jump dynamics with structural breaks for crude oil prices," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(2), pages 343-350, March.
- Tabak, Benjamin M. & Cajueiro, Daniel O., 2007. "Are the crude oil markets becoming weakly efficient over time? A test for time-varying long-range dependence in prices and volatility," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 29(1), pages 28-36, January.
- Risso, Wiston Adrián, 2008. "The informational efficiency and the financial crashes," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 22(3), pages 396-408, September.
- Hamilton, James D, 1983. "Oil and the Macroeconomy since World War II," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 91(2), pages 228-48, April.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:eneeco:v:33:y:2011:i:5:p:936-947. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Shamier, Wendy)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.