IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/ecosys/v45y2021i3s0939362521000509.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

A spatial analysis of inward FDI and urban–rural wage inequality in China

Author

Listed:
  • Wang, Hao
  • Fidrmuc, Jan
  • Luo, Qi

Abstract

This article investigates the spatial effect of inward foreign direct investment (FDI) on urban–rural wage inequality, both in the short and long run, by employing the Spatial Durbin Model. In particular, we carefully consider the heterogeneity of inward FDI with respect to its entry mode (ownership type) and sectoral distribution. Based on a panel dataset covering 30 provinces and cities in China from 2000 to 2016, our results show that inward FDI does not increase urban–rural wage inequality. In particular, we do not find a significant relationship between inward FDI in the secondary and tertiary sectors, while inward FDI in the primary sector has a slightly negative effect on inequality. When we consider inward FDI by entry mode, we find that wholly foreign-owned enterprises (WFE) have a negative spatial effect on urban–rural wage inequality in the short and long run, while equity joint ventures (EJV) reduce urban–rural inequality in the long run only.

Suggested Citation

  • Wang, Hao & Fidrmuc, Jan & Luo, Qi, 2021. "A spatial analysis of inward FDI and urban–rural wage inequality in China," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 45(3).
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:ecosys:v:45:y:2021:i:3:s0939362521000509
    DOI: 10.1016/j.ecosys.2021.100902
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0939362521000509
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    File URL: https://libkey.io/10.1016/j.ecosys.2021.100902?utm_source=ideas
    LibKey link: if access is restricted and if your library uses this service, LibKey will redirect you to where you can use your library subscription to access this item
    ---><---

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version below or search for a different version of it.

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Taylor, Karl & Driffield, Nigel, 2005. "Wage inequality and the role of multinationals: evidence from UK panel data," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 12(2), pages 223-249, April.
    2. Latorre, María C. & Yonezawa, Hidemichi & Zhou, Jing, 2018. "A general equilibrium analysis of FDI growth in Chinese services sectors," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 47(C), pages 172-188.
    3. Wei, Shang-Jin & Wu, Yi, 2001. "Globalization and Inequality: Evidence from within China," CEPR Discussion Papers 3088, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    4. Fosfuri, Andrea & Motta, Massimo & Ronde, Thomas, 2001. "Foreign direct investment and spillovers through workers' mobility," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 53(1), pages 205-222, February.
    5. Nong Zhu & Xubei Luo, 2010. "The impact of migration on rural poverty and inequality: a case study in China," Agricultural Economics, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 41(2), pages 191-204, March.
    6. Dennis Tao Yang & Hao Zhou, 1999. "Rural-urban disparity and sectoral labour allocation in China," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 35(3), pages 105-133.
    7. Chunlai Chen, 2011. "Foreign Direct Investment in China," Books, Edward Elgar Publishing, number 14100.
    8. Mah, Jai S., 2013. "Globalization, decentralization and income inequality: The case of China," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 31(C), pages 653-658.
    9. Guanghua Wan & Ming Lu & Zhao Chen, 2007. "Globalization And Regional Income Inequality: Empirical Evidence From Within China," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 53(1), pages 35-59, March.
    10. Salike, Nimesh, 2016. "Role of human capital on regional distribution of FDI in China: New evidences," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 37(C), pages 66-84.
    11. Paolo Figini & Holger Go¨rg, 2011. "Does Foreign Direct Investment Affect Wage Inequality? An Empirical Investigation," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 34(9), pages 1455-1475, September.
    12. Ben Slimane, Mehdi & Huchet-Bourdon, Marilyne & Zitouna, Habib, 2016. "The role of sectoral FDI in promoting agricultural production and improving food security," International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 145(C), pages 50-65.
    13. Miao Wang, 2009. "Manufacturing FDI and economic growth: evidence from Asian economies," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 41(8), pages 991-1002.
    14. Santangelo, Grazia D., 2018. "The impact of FDI in land in agriculture in developing countries on host country food security," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 53(1), pages 75-84.
    15. Nicole Madariaga & Sandra Poncet, 2007. "FDI in Chinese Cities: Spillovers and Impact on Growth," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 30(5), pages 837-862, May.
    16. Chen, Zhihong & Ge, Ying & Lai, Huiwen, 2011. "Foreign Direct Investment and Wage Inequality: Evidence from China," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 39(8), pages 1322-1332, August.
    17. Pan-Long Tsai, 1995. "Foreign direct investment and income inequality: Further evidence," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 23(3), pages 469-483, March.
    18. Meltem Ucal & Alfred Albert Haug & Mehmet Hüseyin Bilgin, 2016. "Income inequality and FDI: evidence with Turkish data," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 48(11), pages 1030-1045, March.
    19. Yang, Dennis Tao, 2002. "What has caused regional inequality in China?," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 13(4), pages 331-334, December.
    20. Greaney, Theresa M. & Li, Yao, 2017. "Multinational enterprises and regional inequality in China," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 48(C), pages 120-133.
    21. Pi, Jiancai & Zhou, Yu, 2014. "Foreign capital, public infrastructure, and wage inequality in developing countries," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 29(C), pages 195-207.
    22. Hao Wang & Jan Fidrmuc & Qi Luo & Mingzhong Luo, 2020. "Exploring the determinants of on-farm transitions: Evidence from rural China," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 52(52), pages 5667-5686, November.
    23. Jim Huangnan Shen & Hao Wang & Steve Chu‐Chia Lin, 2021. "Productivity Gap and Inward FDI Spillovers: Theory and Evidence from China," China & World Economy, Institute of World Economics and Politics, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, vol. 29(2), pages 24-48, March.
    24. Cuadros, Ana & Martín-Montaner, Joan & Paniagua, Jordi, 2019. "Migration and FDI: The role of job skills," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 59(C), pages 318-332.
    25. Wang, Hao & Fidrmuc, Jan & Tian, Yunhua, 2020. "Growing against the background of colonization? Chinese labor market and FDI in a historical perspective," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 69(C), pages 1018-1031.
    26. Basu, Parantap & Guariglia, Alessandra, 2007. "Foreign Direct Investment, inequality, and growth," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 29(4), pages 824-839, December.
    27. Anselin, Luc & Bera, Anil K. & Florax, Raymond & Yoon, Mann J., 1996. "Simple diagnostic tests for spatial dependence," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 26(1), pages 77-104, February.
    28. Doytch, Nadia, 2015. "Sectoral FDI cycles in South and East Asia," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 36(C), pages 24-33.
    29. Molero-Simarro, Ricardo, 2017. "Inequality in China revisited. The effect of functional distribution of income on urban top incomes, the urban-rural gap and the Gini index, 1978–2015," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 42(C), pages 101-117.
    30. Feenstra, Robert C. & Hanson, Gordon H., 1997. "Foreign direct investment and relative wages: Evidence from Mexico's maquiladoras," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 42(3-4), pages 371-393, May.
    31. Lessmann, Christian, 2013. "Foreign direct investment and regional inequality: A panel data analysis," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 24(C), pages 129-149.
    32. Asteriou, Dimitrios & Dimelis, Sophia & Moudatsou, Argiro, 2014. "Globalization and income inequality: A panel data econometric approach for the EU27 countries," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 36(C), pages 592-599.
    33. Wang, Jin, 2013. "The economic impact of Special Economic Zones: Evidence from Chinese municipalities," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 101(C), pages 133-147.
    34. Hao Wang & Qi Luo, 2020. "How colonial legacy shapes the impact of inward FDI on GDP? Evidence from China," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 27(9), pages 740-743, May.
    35. Xiaobo Zhang & Kevin Zhang, 2003. "How Does Globalisation Affect Regional Inequality within A Developing Country? Evidence from China," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 39(4), pages 47-67.
    36. Solmaria Halleck Vega & J. Paul Elhorst, 2015. "The Slx Model," Journal of Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 55(3), pages 339-363, June.
    37. Beata Smarzynska Javorcik, 2004. "Does Foreign Direct Investment Increase the Productivity of Domestic Firms? In Search of Spillovers Through Backward Linkages," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 94(3), pages 605-627, June.
    38. Jiancai Pi & Pengqing Zhang, 2018. "Rural–urban human capital disparity and skilled–unskilled wage inequality in China," Review of Development Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 22(2), pages 827-843, May.
    39. Kailei Wei & Shujie Yao & Aying Liu, 2009. "Foreign Direct Investment and Regional Inequality in China," Review of Development Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 13(4), pages 778-791, November.
    40. Lu, Yi & Tao, Zhigang & Zhu, Lianming, 2017. "Identifying FDI spillovers," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 107(C), pages 75-90.
    41. Chaudhuri, Sarbajit & Banerjee, Dibyendu, 2010. "FDI in agricultural land, welfare and unemployment in a developing economy," Research in Economics, Elsevier, vol. 64(4), pages 229-239, December.
    42. Howell, Anthony, 2017. "Impacts of Migration and Remittances on Ethnic Income Inequality in Rural China," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 94(C), pages 200-211.
    43. Dierk Herzer & Peter Nunnenkamp, 2013. "Inward and outward FDI and income inequality: evidence from Europe," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 149(2), pages 395-422, June.
    44. Rubin, Amir & Segal, Dan, 2015. "The effects of economic growth on income inequality in the US," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 45(C), pages 258-273.
    45. Li, Xiaoying & Liu, Xiaming & Parker, David, 2001. "Foreign direct investment and productivity spillovers in the Chinese manufacturing sector," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 25(4), pages 305-321, December.
    46. Xu, Xu & Sylwester, Kevin, 2016. "The effects of foreign direct investment on emigration: The roles of FDI source country, education, and gender," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 55(C), pages 401-409.
    47. Wolfgang F. Stolper & Paul A. Samuelson, 1941. "Protection and Real Wages," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 9(1), pages 58-73.
    48. Jalil, Abdul, 2012. "Modeling income inequality and openness in the framework of Kuznets curve: New evidence from China," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 29(2), pages 309-315.
    49. Huang, Qiong & Chand, Satish, 2015. "Spatial spillovers of regional wages: Evidence from Chinese provinces," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 32(C), pages 97-109.
    50. Girma, Sourafel & Gong, Yundan & Görg, Holger & Lancheros, Sandra, 2015. "Investment liberalisation, technology take-off and export markets entry: Does foreign ownership structure matter?," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 116(C), pages 254-269.
    51. Kanbur, Ravi & Zhang, Xiaobo, 1999. "Which Regional Inequality? The Evolution of Rural-Urban and Inland-Coastal Inequality in China from 1983 to 1995," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(4), pages 686-701, December.
    52. Huang, Jianhuan & Chen, Xudong & Huang, Bihong & Yang, Xiaoguang, 2017. "Economic and environmental impacts of foreign direct investment in China: A spatial spillover analysis," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 45(C), pages 289-309.
    53. Fernandes, Ana M. & Paunov, Caroline, 2012. "Foreign direct investment in services and manufacturing productivity: Evidence for Chile," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 97(2), pages 305-321.
    54. Kevin Sylwester, 2005. "Foreign direct investment, growth and income inequality in less developed countries," International Review of Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 19(3), pages 289-300.
    55. Alan De Brauw & Scott Rozelle, 2008. "Reconciling the Returns to Education in Off‐Farm Wage Employment in Rural China," Review of Development Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 12(1), pages 57-71, February.
    56. Changkyu Choi, 2006. "Does foreign direct investment affect domestic income inequality?," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 13(12), pages 811-814.
    57. Ha, Wei & Yi, Junjian & Yuan, Ye & Zhang, Junsen, 2016. "The dynamic effect of rural-to-urban migration on inequality in source villages: System GMM estimates from rural China," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 37(C), pages 27-39.
    58. Kristin J. Forbes, 2000. "A Reassessment of the Relationship between Inequality and Growth," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 90(4), pages 869-887, September.
    59. Harris, John R & Todaro, Michael P, 1970. "Migration, Unemployment & Development: A Two-Sector Analysis," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 60(1), pages 126-142, March.
    60. Mah, Jai S., 2003. "A note on globalization and income distribution--the case of Korea, 1975-1995," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 14(1), pages 157-164, February.
    61. Puman Ouyang & Shunli Yao, 2017. "Developing inland China: The role of coastal foreign direct investment and exports," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 40(11), pages 2403-2423, November.
    62. Castro Campos, Bente & Ren, Yanjun & Petrick, Martin, 2016. "The impact of education on income inequality between ethnic minorities and Han in China," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 253-267.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Tang, Le & Sun, Shiyu, 2022. "Fiscal incentives, financial support for agriculture, and urban-rural inequality," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 80(C).
    2. Wang, Hao & Luo, Qi, 2022. "Can a colonial legacy explain the pollution haven hypothesis? A city-level panel analysis," Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, Elsevier, vol. 60(C), pages 482-495.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Hao Wang & Jan Fidrmuc & Qi Luo, 2020. "A Spatial Analysis of Inward FDI and Rural-Urban Wage Inequality: Evidence from China," CESifo Working Paper Series 8258, CESifo.
    2. Stefan Jestl & Sandra M. Leitner & Sebastian Leitner, 2022. "The relative impact of different forces of globalization on wage inequality: A fresh look at the EU experience," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 30(4), pages 1003-1037, September.
    3. Sadullah Çelik & Ulkem Basdas, 2010. "How Does Globalization Affect Income Inequality? A Panel Data Analysis," International Advances in Economic Research, Springer;International Atlantic Economic Society, vol. 16(4), pages 358-370, November.
    4. Anders C. Johansson & Dan Liu, 2020. "Foreign direct investment and inequality: Evidence from China's policy change," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 43(6), pages 1647-1664, June.
    5. Hrushikesh Mallick & Mantu Kumar Mahalik & Hemachandra Padhan, 2020. "Does globalization exacerbate income inequality in two largest emerging economies? The role of FDI and remittances inflows," International Review of Economics, Springer;Happiness Economics and Interpersonal Relations (HEIRS), vol. 67(4), pages 443-480, December.
    6. repec:agr:journl:v:1(618):y:2019:i:1(618):p:73-88 is not listed on IDEAS
    7. Kouassi YEBOUA, 2019. "Human capital and the FDI-Income inequality nexus in African countries: Panel smooth transition regression approach," Theoretical and Applied Economics, Asociatia Generala a Economistilor din Romania - AGER, vol. 0(1(618), S), pages 73-88, Spring.
    8. repec:kap:iaecre:v:16:y:2010:i:4:p:358-370 is not listed on IDEAS
    9. Quoc Hoi Le & Quynh Anh Do & Hong Chuong Pham & Thanh Duong Nguyen, 2021. "The Impact of Foreign Direct Investment on Income Inequality in Vietnam," Economies, MDPI, vol. 9(1), pages 1-15, March.
    10. Jing Li & Tsun Se Cheong & Jianfa Shen & Dahai Fu, 2019. "Urbanization And Rural–Urban Consumption Disparity: Evidence From China," The Singapore Economic Review (SER), World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., vol. 64(04), pages 983-996, September.
    11. Svilena MIHAYLOVA, 2015. "Foreign direct investment and income inequality in Central and Eastern Europe," Theoretical and Applied Economics, Asociatia Generala a Economistilor din Romania - AGER, vol. 0(2(603), S), pages 23-42, Summer.
    12. Tsun Se Cheong & Yanrui Wu, 2013. "Globalization and Regional Inequality," Economics Discussion / Working Papers 13-10, The University of Western Australia, Department of Economics.
    13. Michael Beenstock & Daniel Felsenstein & Ziv Rubin, 2017. "Does foreign direct investment polarize regional earnings? Some evidence from Israel," Letters in Spatial and Resource Sciences, Springer, vol. 10(3), pages 385-409, October.
    14. Meltem Ucal & Alfred Albert Haug & Mehmet Hüseyin Bilgin, 2016. "Income inequality and FDI: evidence with Turkish data," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 48(11), pages 1030-1045, March.
    15. Song, Yuegang & Paramati, Sudharshan Reddy & Ummalla, Mallesh & Zakari, Abdulrasheed & Kummitha, Harshavardhan Reddy, 2021. "The effect of remittances and FDI inflows on income distribution in developing economies," Economic Analysis and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 72(C), pages 255-267.
    16. Hebatalla Rezk & Goma Amer & Nahla Fathi & Sizhong Sun, 2022. "The impact of FDI on income inequality in Egypt," Economic Change and Restructuring, Springer, vol. 55(3), pages 2011-2030, August.
    17. Quynh Anh Do & Quoc Hoi Le & Thanh Duong Nguyen & Van Anh Vu & Lan Huong Tran & Cuc Thi Thu Nguyen, 2021. "Spatial Impact of Foreign Direct Investment on Poverty Reduction in Vietnam," JRFM, MDPI, vol. 14(7), pages 1-16, June.
    18. Silvio Traverso & Guido Bonatti, 2015. "Education and FDI: An Insight from US Outflows," Journal of Social Economics, Research Academy of Social Sciences, vol. 2(3), pages 101-116.
    19. Iris Claus & Les Oxley & Chen Wang & Guanghua Wan & Dan Yang, 2014. "Income Inequality In The People'S Republic Of China: Trends, Determinants, And Proposed Remedies," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 28(4), pages 686-708, September.
    20. repec:agr:journl:v:2(602):y:2015:i:2(602):p:23-42 is not listed on IDEAS
    21. Wai Choi Lee & Tsun Se Cheong & Yanrui Wu & Jianxin Wu, 2019. "The Impacts of Financial Development, Urbanization, and Globalization on Income Inequality: A Regression-based Decomposition Approach," Asian Economic Papers, MIT Press, vol. 18(2), pages 126-141, Summer.
    22. Sourafel Girma & Holger Görg & Erasmus Kersting, 2019. "Which boats are lifted by a foreign tide? Direct and indirect wage effects of foreign ownership," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 50(6), pages 923-947, August.
    23. Chunlai Chen & Yan Wu, 2019. "Interregional Impact Of Foreign Direct Investment On China’S Inland Urbanization," The Singapore Economic Review (SER), World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., vol. 64(04), pages 997-1017, September.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Spatial spillovers; Foreign direct investment; Urban-rural wage inequality; SDM;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • C21 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Cross-Sectional Models; Spatial Models; Treatment Effect Models
    • F21 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - International Investment; Long-Term Capital Movements
    • O19 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - International Linkages to Development; Role of International Organizations

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:ecosys:v:45:y:2021:i:3:s0939362521000509. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/osteide.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Catherine Liu (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/osteide.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.