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Closed and Open Economy Models of Business Cycles with Marked Up and Sticky Prices

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  • Robert J. Barro
  • Silvana Tenreyro

Abstract

Shifts in the extent of competition, which affect markups, are possible sources of aggregate fluctuations. Markups are countercyclical; during booms the economy operates more efficiently. In our benchmark model, markups correspond to the prices of differentiated inputs relative to that of undifferentiated final product. If nominal prices of differentiated goods are relatively sticky, unexpected inflation reduces markups, mimicking the effects of increased competition. Similar effects stem from reductions in markups of foreign intermediates and unexpected inflation abroad. The models imply that prices of less competitive goods are more countercyclical. We find support for this hypothesis using data of four-digit manufacturing industries. Copyright 2006 Royal Economic Society.

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  • Robert J. Barro & Silvana Tenreyro, 2006. "Closed and Open Economy Models of Business Cycles with Marked Up and Sticky Prices," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 116(511), pages 434-456, April.
  • Handle: RePEc:ecj:econjl:v:116:y:2006:i:511:p:434-456
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    Cited by:

    1. Giovanni Lombardo, "undated". "Sticky Prices, Markup and the Business Cycle: Some Evidence," Discussion Papers 01/06, Department of Economics, University of York.
    2. Sascha A. Weber & Sven M. Anders, 2007. "Price rigidity and market power in German retailing," Managerial and Decision Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 28(7), pages 737-749.
    3. J.M.C. Santos Silva & Silvana Tenreyro, 2010. "Currency Unions in Prospect and Retrospect," Annual Review of Economics, Annual Reviews, vol. 2(1), pages 51-74, September.
    4. Francis Breedon & Thórarinn G. Pétursson, 2004. " Out in the cold? Iceland’s trade performance outside the EU," Economics wp26_thorarinn, Department of Economics, Central bank of Iceland.
    5. António Afonso & Luís F. Costa, 2013. "Market power and fiscal policy in OECD countries," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 45(32), pages 4545-4555, November.
    6. Alberto Alesina & Robert J. Barro & Silvana Tenreyro, 2003. "Optimal Currency Areas," NBER Chapters,in: NBER Macroeconomics Annual 2002, Volume 17, pages 301-356 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    7. Carlos Santos & Luis F. Costa & Paulo Brito, 2016. "Demand, Supply and Markup Fluctuations," FEUNL Working Paper Series wp609, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Faculdade de Economia.
    8. Alesina, Alberto & Stella, Andrea, 2010. "The Politics of Monetary Policy," Handbook of Monetary Economics,in: Benjamin M. Friedman & Michael Woodford (ed.), Handbook of Monetary Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 18, pages 1001-1054 Elsevier.
    9. Tenreyro, Silvana, 2007. "On the trade impact of nominal exchange rate volatility," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 82(2), pages 485-508, March.
    10. Juan Antonio Garcia-Cebro & Ramon Varela-Santamaria, 2004. "Vertically Integrated North-South Trade and the Redux Model," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 12(4), pages 643-661, September.
    11. Robert Barro & Silvana Tenreyro, 2007. "Economic Effects Of Currency Unions," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 45(1), pages 1-23, January.
    12. Gyun Cheol Gu, 2015. "Why Have U.S. Prices Become Independent of Business Cycles?," Metroeconomica, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 66(4), pages 661-685, November.
    13. Luís F. Costa & Nuno Palma, 2006. "Productive Public Expenditure and Imperfect Competition with Endogenous Price Markup: Comment," Working Papers Department of Economics 2006/24, ISEG - Lisbon School of Economics and Management, Department of Economics, Universidade de Lisboa.
    14. Plehn-Dujowich, Jose M., 2008. "On the counter-cyclicality of prices and markups in a Cournot model of entry," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 99(2), pages 310-313, May.
    15. Tommaso Mancini Griffoli, 2006. "Explaining the Euro's Effect on Trade? Interest Rates in an Augmented Gravity Equation," IHEID Working Papers 10-2006, Economics Section, The Graduate Institute of International Studies.
    16. Carlos Santos & Luis F. Costa & Paulo Brito, 2016. "Demand, Supply and Markup Fluctuations," FEUNL Working Paper Series wp609, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Faculdade de Economia.
    17. Luís F. Costa & Huw Dixon, 2009. "Fiscal Policy under Imperfect Competition: A Survey," Working Papers Department of Economics 2009/25, ISEG - Lisbon School of Economics and Management, Department of Economics, Universidade de Lisboa.

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