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Determinantes de la tasa de cambio en Colombia: un enfoque de microestructura de mercados

Listed author(s):
  • Andrés Murcia

    ()

  • Diego Rojas

    ()

En este trabajo se brindan elementos adicionales en la comprensión de la dinámica de la tasa de cambio en Colombia. Por una parte, se presentan los principales hallazgos de una encuesta dirigida a los agentes del mercado cambiario; en ella se resalta la diferencia en la percepción que exhiben los agentes en torno a los determinantes de corto, mediano y largo plazo. En el primer caso, los determinantes responderían principalmente a efectos de microestructura, mientras que a mediano y largo plazo, la tasa de cambio respondería sobre todo a sus fundamentales. Los agentes también resaltan la mayor importancia de los factores internacionales con respecto a los locales en la dinámica de esta variable. Este estudio se concentra especialmente en los determinantes de corto plazo de la tasa de cambio. Con el objetivo de enmarcar la determinación de esta variable se presenta un modelo teórico desarrollado por Kyle (1985) donde se resalta la importancia de los factores de microestructura en un escenario de información asimétrica y agentes estratégicos. Con base en estos determinantes se estimó un modelo de microestructura, utilizando información intradía descargada directamente de las pantallas de negociación. Este modelo es utilizado para corroborar algunos hallazgos de la encuesta realizada. En particular, se valida la mayor importancia de factores internacionales respecto a los factores locales, y también se evalúa el impacto de la intervención del Banco de la República sobre la dinámica del tipo de cambio. ****** This work seeks to provide some additional elements in understanding the dynamics of the exchange rate in Colombia. First, it uses information from a survey directed to the exchange rate market players. It highlights the difference exhibited by market participants about the determinants of the exchange rate in the short, medium and long term. In the first case, the determinants respond primarily to market microstructure effects while in the medium and long term, the exchange rate is mainly drivenby its economic fundamentals. Agents also highlighted the increasing importance of international factors with respect to the premises in determining the dynamics of this variable. This study focuses specifically on the determinants of short-term of the exchange rate where the microstructure elements take greater relevance. To this end, a theoretical model developed by Kyle (1985) is presented, which highlights the importance of microstructure factors in determining the exchange rate in a scenario of asymmetric information and strategic agents. Based on the identification of these microstructure determinants, an empirical model was estimated using information downloaded directly from intraday trading screens. This model is used to corroborate some of the survey results. In particular, it validates the increasing importance of international factors with respect to local factors, as well as the impact of the intervention of the Central Bank on the dynamics of the exchange rate in Colombia.

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Article provided by BANCO DE LA REPÚBLICA - ESPE in its journal ENSAYOS SOBRE POLÍTICA ECONÓMICA.

Volume (Year): 32 (2014)
Issue (Month): 74 (June)
Pages: 52-67

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Handle: RePEc:col:000107:012398
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  1. Maurice Obstfeld & Kenneth Rogoff, 2001. "The Six Major Puzzles in International Macroeconomics: Is There a Common Cause?," NBER Chapters,in: NBER Macroeconomics Annual 2000, Volume 15, pages 339-412 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. Juan José Echavarría & Luis Fernando Melo Velandia & Santiago Téllez & Mauricio Villamizar, 2013. "The Impact of Pre-announced Day-to-day Interventions on the Colombian Exchange Rate," BORRADORES DE ECONOMIA 010767, BANCO DE LA REPÚBLICA.
  3. Martin D.D. Evans & Richard K. Lyons, 2017. "Order Flow and Exchange Rate Dynamics," World Scientific Book Chapters,in: Studies in Foreign Exchange Economics, chapter 6, pages 247-290 World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
  4. Carolina Gómez Restrepo & Diego Jara Pinzón & Andrés Murcia Pabón, 2006. "Impacto De Las Operaciones De Los Fondos De Pensiones Obligatorias En Los Mercados Financieros Colombianos," BORRADORES DE ECONOMIA 002806, BANCO DE LA REPÚBLICA.
  5. Nelson, Daniel B, 1991. "Conditional Heteroskedasticity in Asset Returns: A New Approach," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 59(2), pages 347-370, March.
  6. Martin D. D. Evans, 2017. "Order Flows and the Exchange Rate Disconnect Puzzle," World Scientific Book Chapters,in: Studies in Foreign Exchange Economics, chapter 15, pages 599-643 World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
  7. Vitale, Paolo, 1999. "Sterilised central bank intervention in the foreign exchange market," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 49(2), pages 245-267, December.
  8. Juan José Echavarría & Mauricio Villamizar & Diego Vásquez, 2010. "Impacto de las intervenciones cambiarias sobre el nivel y la volatilidad de la tasa de cambio en Colombia," Ensayos sobre Política Económica, Banco de la Republica de Colombia, vol. 28(62), pages 12-69, Junio.
  9. Gulcay Tuna, 2011. "The effectiveness of Central Bank intervention: evidence from Turkey," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 43(14), pages 1801-1815.
  10. Evans, Kevin P. & Speight, Alan E.H., 2010. "Dynamic news effects in high frequency Euro exchange rates," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 20(3), pages 238-258, July.
  11. Diego Vásquez E. & Pedro Felipe Lega G. & Andrés Murcia P. & Tatiana Venegas K., 2008. "Volatilidad de la tasa de cambio nominal en Colombia y su relación con algunas variables," COYUNTURA ECONÓMICA, FEDESARROLLO, June.
  12. Engle, Robert F & Ng, Victor K, 1993. " Measuring and Testing the Impact of News on Volatility," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 48(5), pages 1749-1778, December.
  13. Glosten, Lawrence R. & Milgrom, Paul R., 1985. "Bid, ask and transaction prices in a specialist market with heterogeneously informed traders," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 14(1), pages 71-100, March.
  14. Kyle, Albert S, 1985. "Continuous Auctions and Insider Trading," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 53(6), pages 1315-1335, November.
  15. Michael Sager & Mark P. Taylor, 2008. "Commercially Available Order Flow Data and Exchange Rate Movements: "Caveat Emptor"," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 40(4), pages 583-625, 06.
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