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Before and After: Gender Transitions, Human Capital, and Workplace Experiences

Author

Listed:
  • Schilt Kristen

    () (University of Chicago)

  • Wiswall Matthew

    () (New York University)

Abstract

We use the workplace experiences of transgender people individuals who change their gender typically with hormone therapy and surgery to provide new insights into the long-standing question of what role gender plays in shaping workplace outcomes. Using an original survey of male-to-female and female-to-male transgender people, we document the earnings and employment experiences of transgender people before and after their gender transitions. We find that while transgender people have the same human capital after their transitions, their workplace experiences often change radically. We estimate that average earnings for female-to-male transgender workers increase slightly following their gender transitions, while average earnings for male-to-female transgender workers fall by nearly 1/3. This finding is consistent with qualitative evidence that for many male-to-female workers, becoming a woman often brings a loss of authority, harassment, and termination, but that for many female-to-male workers, becoming a man often brings an increase in respect and authority. These findings challenge the omitted variables explanations for the gender pay gap and illustrate the often hidden and subtle processes that produce gender inequality in workplace outcomes.

Suggested Citation

  • Schilt Kristen & Wiswall Matthew, 2008. "Before and After: Gender Transitions, Human Capital, and Workplace Experiences," The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, De Gruyter, vol. 8(1), pages 1-28, September.
  • Handle: RePEc:bpj:bejeap:v:8:y:2008:i:1:n:39
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Geijtenbeek, Lydia & Plug, Erik, 2015. "Is There a Penalty for Becoming a Woman? Is There a Premium for Becoming a Man? Evidence from a Sample of Transsexual Workers," IZA Discussion Papers 9077, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    2. repec:iza:izawol:journl:y:2017:n:386 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. White Hughto, Jaclyn M. & Reisner, Sari L. & Pachankis, John E., 2015. "Transgender stigma and health: A critical review of stigma determinants, mechanisms, and interventions," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 147(C), pages 222-231.
    4. Beauregard, T. Alexandra & Arevshatian, L. & Booth, Jonathan E. & Whittle, S., 2016. "Listen carefully: transgender voices in the workplace," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 67793, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.

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