IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/bla/econom/v80y2013i317p96-117.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Real Output of Bank Services: What Counts is What Banks Do, Not What They Own

Author

Listed:
  • Robert Inklaar
  • J. Christina Wang

Abstract

The measurement of bank output, a difficult and contentious issue, has become even more important in the aftermath of the devastating financial crisis of recent years. In this paper, we argue that models of banks as processors of information and transactions imply a quantity measure of bank service output based on transaction counts instead of balances of loans and deposits. Compiling new and comparable output measures for the United States and a range of European countries, we show that our counts-based output series exhibit significantly different growth patterns from those of our balances-based output series over the years 1997 to 2009. Since the U.S. official statistics rely on counts while European statistics rely on balances, this implies a potentially considerable bias in the estimate of bank output growth in Europe vis--vis that in the United States.
(This abstract was borrowed from another version of this item.)

Suggested Citation

  • Robert Inklaar & J. Christina Wang, 2013. "Real Output of Bank Services: What Counts is What Banks Do, Not What They Own," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 80(317), pages 96-117, January.
  • Handle: RePEc:bla:econom:v:80:y:2013:i:317:p:96-117
    DOI: 10.1111/j.1468-0335.2012.00942.x
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10.1111/10.1111/j.1468-0335.2012.00942.x
    Download Restriction: Access to full text is restricted to subscribers.

    File URL: https://libkey.io/10.1111/j.1468-0335.2012.00942.x?utm_source=ideas
    LibKey link: if access is restricted and if your library uses this service, LibKey will redirect you to where you can use your library subscription to access this item
    ---><---

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version below or search for a different version of it.

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Jagtiani, Julapa & Nathan, Alli & Sick, Gordon, 1995. "Scale economies and cost complementarities in commercial banks: On-and off-balance-sheet activities," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 19(7), pages 1175-1189, October.
    2. Susanto Basu & Robert Inklaar & J. Christina Wang, 2011. "The Value Of Risk: Measuring The Service Output Of U.S. Commercial Banks," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 49(1), pages 226-245, January.
    3. Diamond, Douglas W, 1991. "Monitoring and Reputation: The Choice between Bank Loans and Directly Placed Debt," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 99(4), pages 689-721, August.
    4. Berger, Allen N. & Humphrey, David B., 1997. "Efficiency of financial institutions: International survey and directions for future research," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 98(2), pages 175-212, April.
    5. Mester, Loretta J., 1992. "Traditional and nontraditional banking: An information-theoretic approach," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 16(3), pages 545-566, June.
    6. Ors, Evren, 2004. "Postmortem on the Federal Reserve's Functional Cost Analysis Program: how useful was the FCA?," Review of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 13(1-2), pages 121-148.
    7. Hunter, William C & Timme, Stephen G & Yang, Won Keun, 1990. "An Examination of Cost Subadditivity and Multiproduct Production in Large U.S. Banks," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 22(4), pages 504-525, November.
    8. Merton, Robert C, 1974. "On the Pricing of Corporate Debt: The Risk Structure of Interest Rates," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 29(2), pages 449-470, May.
    9. Leland, Hayne E & Pyle, David H, 1977. "Informational Asymmetries, Financial Structure, and Financial Intermediation," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 32(2), pages 371-387, May.
    10. Benston, George J & Smith, Clifford W, Jr, 1976. "A Transactions Cost Approach to the Theory of Financial Intermediation," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 31(2), pages 215-231, May.
    11. Salvatore Muzzicato & Roberto Sabbatini & Francesco Zollino, 2008. "Prices of residential property in Italy: constructing a new indicator," Questioni di Economia e Finanza (Occasional Papers) 17, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
    12. Diewert, W E, 1974. "Intertemporal Consumer Theory and the Demand for Durables," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 42(3), pages 497-516, May.
    13. Diewert, Erwin & Fixler, Dennis & Zieschang, Kimberly, 2011. "The Measurement of Banking Services in the System of National Accounts," Economics working papers erwin_diewert-2011-23, Vancouver School of Economics, revised 01 Sep 2011.
    14. J Christina Wang, 2010. "Risk and bank service output," IFC Bulletins chapters, in: Bank for International Settlements (ed.), The IFC's contribution to the 57th ISI Session, Durban, August 2009, volume 33, pages 317-333, Bank for International Settlements.
    15. Rogers, Kevin E., 1998. "Nontraditional activities and the efficiency of US commercial banks," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 22(4), pages 467-482, May.
    16. Alan D. Morrison, 2005. "Credit Derivatives, Disintermediation, and Investment Decisions," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 78(2), pages 621-648, March.
    17. Douglas W. Diamond, 1984. "Financial Intermediation and Delegated Monitoring," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 51(3), pages 393-414.
    18. Campbell, Tim S & Kracaw, William A, 1980. "Information Production, Market Signalling, and the Theory of Financial Intermediation," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 35(4), pages 863-882, September.
    19. Stiroh, Kevin J., 2000. "How did bank holding companies prosper in the 1990s?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 24(11), pages 1703-1745, November.
    20. Susanto Basu & J. Christina Wang, 2005. "Risk bearing, implicit financial services, and specialization in the financial industry," Public Policy Discussion Paper 06-3, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston.
    21. James, Christopher, 1988. "The use of loan sales and standby letters of credit by commercial banks," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(3), pages 395-422.
    22. Hancock, Diana, 1985. "The Financial Firm: Production with Monetary and Nonmonetary Goods," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 93(5), pages 859-880, October.
    23. Barnett, William A., 1978. "The user cost of money," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 1(2), pages 145-149.
    24. Sealey, Calvin W, Jr & Lindley, James T, 1977. "Inputs, Outputs, and a Theory of Production and Cost at Depository Financial Institutions," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 32(4), pages 1251-1266, September.
    25. Antonio Colangelo & Robert Inklaar, 2012. "Bank Output Measurement In The Euro Area: A Modified Approach," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 58(1), pages 142-165, March.
    26. Robert C. Merton, 1995. "A Functional Perspective of Financial Intermediation," Financial Management, Financial Management Association, vol. 24(2), Summer.
    27. William J. Baumol, 1952. "The Transactions Demand for Cash: An Inventory Theoretic Approach," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 66(4), pages 545-556.
    28. Clark, Jeffrey A & Siems, Thomas F, 2002. "X-Efficiency in Banking: Looking beyond the Balance Sheet," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 34(4), pages 987-1013, November.
    29. Diewert, W. E., 1976. "Exact and superlative index numbers," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 4(2), pages 115-145, May.
    30. Alan Morrison, 2000. "Credit Derivatives, Disintermediation and Investment Decisions," OFRC Working Papers Series 2001fe01, Oxford Financial Research Centre.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Doris Ritzberger-Grünwald & Alfred Stiglbauer & Walter Waschiczek, 2016. "Banking employment in Austria," Financial Stability Report, Oesterreichische Nationalbank (Austrian Central Bank), issue 32, pages 80-100.
    2. Ippolito, Filippo & Ozdagli, Ali K. & Perez-Orive, Ander, 2018. "The transmission of monetary policy through bank lending: The floating rate channel," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 95(C), pages 49-71.
    3. Groslambert, Bertrand & Chiappini, Raphaël & Bruno, Olivier, 2016. "Desperately seeking cash: Evidence from bank output measurement," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 59(C), pages 495-507.
    4. Diewert, Erwin & Fixler, Dennis & Zieschang, Kimberly, 2012. "Problems with the Measurement of Banking Services in a National Accounting Framework," Economics working papers erwin_diewert-2012-14, Vancouver School of Economics, revised 04 Apr 2012.
    5. José Luis Gallizo & Jordi Moreno & Manuel Salvador, 2015. "European banking integration: is foreign ownership affecting banking efficiency?," Journal of Business Economics and Management, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 16(2), pages 340-368, April.
    6. W. Erwin Diewert & Kevin J. Fox, 2018. "Alternative User Costs, Productivity and Inequality in US Business Sectors," Springer Proceedings in Business and Economics, in: William H. Greene & Lynda Khalaf & Paul Makdissi & Robin C. Sickles & Michael Veall & Marcel-Cristia (ed.), Productivity and Inequality, pages 21-69, Springer.
    7. Hartwig, Jochen & Krämer, Hagen, 2019. "The ‘Growth Disease’ at 50 – Baumol after Oulton," Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, Elsevier, vol. 51(C), pages 463-471.
    8. Boutillier, M. & Bricongne, J.C., 2012. "Disintermediation or financial diversification? The case of developed countries," Working papers 380, Banque de France.
    9. Burgess, Stephen, 2011. "Measuring financial sector output and its contribution to UK GDP," Bank of England Quarterly Bulletin, Bank of England, vol. 51(3), pages 234-246.
    10. , & Diewert, Erwin, 2014. "The Treatment of Financial Transactions in the SNA: A User Cost Approach," Economics working papers erwin_diewert-2014-8, Vancouver School of Economics, revised 20 Feb 2014.
    11. Bertrand Groslambert & Raphaël Chiappini & Olivier Bruno, 2015. "Bank Output Calculation in the Case of France: What Do New Methods Tell About the Financial Intermediation Services in the Aftermath of the Crisis?," GREDEG Working Papers 2015-32, Groupe de REcherche en Droit, Economie, Gestion (GREDEG CNRS), Université Côte d'Azur, France.
    12. Bart van Ark & Mary O’Mahony & Marcel P. Timmer, 2012. "Europe’s Productivity Performance in Comparative Perspective: Trends, Causes and Recent Developments," Chapters, in: Matilde Mas & Robert Stehrer (ed.), Industrial Productivity in Europe, chapter 3, Edward Elgar Publishing.
    13. Diewert, W. Erwin & Fox, Kevin J., 2016. "Alternative User Costs, Rates of Return and TFP Growth Rates for the US Nonfinancial Corporate and Noncorporate Business Sectors: 1960-2014," Microeconomics.ca working papers erwin_diewert-2016-7, Vancouver School of Economics, revised 30 Jun 2016.
    14. Russell Kashian & Richard McGregory & Robert Drago, 2017. "Minority owned banks and efficiency revisited," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, vol. 48(2), pages 97-116, December.
    15. Ceri Davies & Max Gillman & Michal Kejak, 2016. "Interest Rates Rules," Working Papers 1009, University of Missouri-St. Louis, Department of Economics.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. J. Christina Wang & Susanto Basu & John G. Fernald, 2009. "A General-Equilibrium Asset-Pricing Approach to the Measurement of Nominal and Real Bank Output," NBER Chapters, in: Price Index Concepts and Measurement, pages 273-320, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    2. , & Diewert, Erwin, 2014. "The Treatment of Financial Transactions in the SNA: A User Cost Approach," Economics working papers erwin_diewert-2014-8, Vancouver School of Economics, revised 20 Feb 2014.
    3. Susanto Basu & J. Christina Wang, 2013. "Technological progress, the \"user cost of money,\" and the real output of banks," Working Papers 13-21, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston.
    4. Tortosa-Ausina, Emili, 2003. "Nontraditional activities and bank efficiency revisited: a distributional analysis for Spanish financial institutions," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 55(4), pages 371-395.
    5. Berger, Allen N. & Mester, Loretta J., 1997. "Inside the black box: What explains differences in the efficiencies of financial institutions?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 21(7), pages 895-947, July.
    6. Steven Ongena & Viorel Roşcovan & Wei-Ling Song & Bas J.M. Werker, 2014. "Banks and Bonds: The Impact of Bank Loan Announcements on Bond and Equity Prices," Journal of Financial Management, Markets and Institutions, Società editrice il Mulino, issue 2, pages 131-156, December.
    7. Payam Hanafizadeh & Seyedali Marjaie, 2020. "Trends and turning points of banking: a timespan view," Review of Managerial Science, Springer, vol. 14(6), pages 1183-1219, December.
    8. Lozano-Vivas, Ana & Pasiouras, Fotios, 2010. "The impact of non-traditional activities on the estimation of bank efficiency: International evidence," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(7), pages 1436-1449, July.
    9. Akhigbe, Aigbe & Stevenson, Bradley A., 2010. "Profit efficiency in U.S. BHCs: Effects of increasing non-traditional revenue sources," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 50(2), pages 132-140, May.
    10. Martín-Oliver, Alfredo & Ruano, Sonia & Salas-Fumás, Vicente, 2013. "Why high productivity growth of banks preceded the financial crisis," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 22(4), pages 688-712.
    11. Enzo Dia, 2004. "Imperfect Information and Monopolistic Pricing in the Banking Industry," Working Papers 74, University of Milano-Bicocca, Department of Economics, revised May 2004.
    12. Cheng Keat Tang & Masaki Mori & Seow Eng Ong & Joseph T. L. Ooi, 2016. "Debt Raising and Refinancing by Japanese REITs: Information Content in a Credit Crunch," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 53(2), pages 141-161, August.
    13. J. Christina Wang, 2003. "Loanable funds, risk, and bank service output," Working Papers 03-4, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston.
    14. Bertrand Groslambert & Raphaël Chiappini & Olivier Bruno, 2015. "Bank Output Calculation in the Case of France: What Do New Methods Tell About the Financial Intermediation Services in the Aftermath of the Crisis?," GREDEG Working Papers 2015-32, Groupe de REcherche en Droit, Economie, Gestion (GREDEG CNRS), Université Côte d'Azur, France.
    15. Zuzana Iršová & Tomáš Havránek, 2010. "Measuring Bank Efficiency: A Meta-Regression Analysis," Prague Economic Papers, Prague University of Economics and Business, vol. 2010(4), pages 307-328.
    16. Susanto Basu & Robert Inklaar & J. Christina Wang, 2011. "The Value Of Risk: Measuring The Service Output Of U.S. Commercial Banks," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 49(1), pages 226-245, January.
    17. Carlos Serrano-Cinca & Begoña Gutiérrez-Nieto & Luz López-Palacios, 2015. "Determinants of Default in P2P Lending," PLOS ONE, Public Library of Science, vol. 10(10), pages 1-22, October.
    18. Kimberly D. Zieschang, 2016. "FISIM Accounting," CEPA Working Papers Series WP012016, School of Economics, University of Queensland, Australia.
    19. Hilscher, Jens & Şişli-Ciamarra, Elif, 2013. "Conflicts of interest on corporate boards: The effect of creditor-directors on acquisitions," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 19(C), pages 140-158.
    20. Joseph P. Hughes & Loretta J. Mester, 2013. "Measuring the Performance of Banks: Theory, Practice, Evidence, and Some Policy Implications," Departmental Working Papers 201322, Rutgers University, Department of Economics.

    More about this item

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:bla:econom:v:80:y:2013:i:317:p:96-117. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/lsepsuk.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Wiley Content Delivery (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/lsepsuk.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.