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Citations for "Financial Development and Economic Growth: The Role of Stock Markets"

by Arestis, Philip & Demetriades, Panicos O & Luintel, Kul B

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  1. Jérôme Creel & Paul Hubert & Fabien Labondance, 2013. "Financial stability and economic performance," Sciences Po publications 2013-24, Sciences Po.
  2. Sarkar, Prabirjit, 2007. "Stock Market Development and Capital Accumulation: What the Time Series Evidence Shows," MPRA Paper 5054, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  3. Lee, Chien-Chiang & Chang, Chun-Ping, 2005. "Structural breaks, energy consumption, and economic growth revisited: Evidence from Taiwan," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(6), pages 857-872, November.
  4. Su, Chen & Brookfield, David, 2013. "An evaluation of the impact of stock market reforms on IPO under-pricing in China: The certification role of underwriters," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 28(C), pages 20-33.
  5. Stavros Degiannakis & Andreas Andrikopoulos & Timotheos Angelidis & Christos Floros, 2013. "Return dispersion, stock market liquidity and aggregate economic activity," Working Papers 166, Bank of Greece.
  6. Laurent Augier & Wahyoe Soedarmono, 2011. "Threshold Effect and Financial Intermediation in Economic Development," Post-Print hal-00785204, HAL.
  7. Jacob A. Bikker & Haixia Hu, 2002. "Cyclical patterns in profits, provisioning and lending of banks and procyclicality of the new Basel capital requirements," Banca Nazionale del Lavoro Quarterly Review, Banca Nazionale del Lavoro, vol. 55(221), pages 143-175.
  8. Fukuda, Takashi & Dahalan, Jauhari, 2011. "“Finance-Growth-Crisis Nexus in India: Evidence from Cointegration and Causality Assessment” - L’interazione finanza-crescita-crisi in India: evidenze da una analisi di cointegrazione e causalit," Economia Internazionale / International Economics, Camera di Commercio di Genova, vol. 64(3), pages 297-328.
  9. Marques, Luís Miguel & Fuinhas, José Alberto & Marques, António Cardoso, 2012. "Interação entre o mercado acionista e o crescimento económico: Uma apreciação do caso português (1993-2010)
    [Interaction between the stock market and economic growth: An assessment of the Por
    ," MPRA Paper 39808, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  10. Javier Gómez Biscarri & Fernando Pérez de Gracia, 2002. "Stock Market Cycles and Stock Market Development in Spain," Faculty Working Papers 01/02, School of Economics and Business Administration, University of Navarra.
  11. Moayedi, Vafa & Aminfard, Matin, 2011. "The Impact of Policy Shocks on Financial Structure: Empirical Results from Japan," MPRA Paper 39185, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  12. Michiel Bijlsma & Andrei Dubovik, 2014. "Banks, Financial Markets and Growth in Developed Countries: a Survey of the empirical literature," CPB Discussion Paper 266, CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis.
  13. Levine, Ross, 2005. "Finance and Growth: Theory and Evidence," Handbook of Economic Growth, in: Philippe Aghion & Steven Durlauf (ed.), Handbook of Economic Growth, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 12, pages 865-934 Elsevier.
  14. Chang, Shu-Hwa & Huang, Liang-Chou, 2010. "The nexus of finance and GDP growth in Japan: Do real interest rates matter?," Japan and the World Economy, Elsevier, vol. 22(4), pages 235-242, December.
  15. Walker, Eduardo & Lefort, Fernando, 2002. "Pension reform and capital markets : are there any (hard) links?," Social Protection Discussion Papers 24082, The World Bank.
  16. James B. Ang, 2008. "Finance And Inequality: The Case Of India," CAMA Working Papers 2008-18, Centre for Applied Macroeconomic Analysis, Crawford School of Public Policy, The Australian National University.
  17. María Carkovic & Ross Levine, 2002. "Finance and Growth: New Evidence and Policy Analyses for Chile," Central Banking, Analysis, and Economic Policies Book Series, in: Norman Loayza & Raimundo Soto & Norman Loayza (Series Editor) & Klaus Schmidt-Hebbel (Series Editor) (ed.), Economic Growth: Sources, Trends, and Cycles, edition 1, volume 6, chapter 11, pages 343-376 Central Bank of Chile.
  18. Beck, Thorsten & Levine, Ross, 2001. "Stock markets, banks, and growth : correlation or causality?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2670, The World Bank.
  19. repec:eme:jrfpps:v:11:y:2011:i:2:p:98-111 is not listed on IDEAS
  20. Laurent Cavenaile & Christian Gengenbach & Franz Palm, 2013. "Stock Markets, Banks and Long Run Economics Growth: A Panel Cointegration-Based Analysis," CESifo Working Paper Series 4513, CESifo Group Munich.
  21. Kumbhakar, Subal C. & Mavrotas, George, 2005. "Financial Sector Development and Productivity Growth," Working Paper Series RP2005/68, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
  22. Jordan Shan, 2005. "Does financial development 'lead' economic growth? A vector auto-regression appraisal," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 37(12), pages 1353-1367.
  23. George Hondroyiannis & Sarantis Lolos & Evangelia Papapetrou, 2004. "Financial Markets and Economic Growth in Greece," Working Papers 17, Bank of Greece.
  24. Kuhan Harichandra & S. M. Thangavelu, 2004. "Institutional Investors, Financial Sector Development And Economic Growth in OECD Countries," Departmental Working Papers wp0405, National University of Singapore, Department of Economics.
  25. Cheng, Su-Yin, 2012. "Substitution or complementary effects between banking and stock markets: Evidence from financial openness in Taiwan," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 22(3), pages 508-520.
  26. Naceur, Samy Ben & Ghazouani, Samir, 2007. "Stock markets, banks, and economic growth: Empirical evidence from the MENA region," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 21(2), pages 297-315, June.
  27. Paul Wachtel & Peter L. Rousseau, 2006. "What is happening to the impact of financial deepening on economic growth?," Working Papers 06-15, New York University, Leonard N. Stern School of Business, Department of Economics.
  28. Misati, Roseline Nyakerario & Nyamongo, Esman Morekwa, 2012. "Financial liberalization, financial fragility and economic growth in Sub-Saharan Africa," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 8(3), pages 150-160.
  29. Demirguc-Kunt, Asli & Levine, Ross, 2008. "Finance, financial sector policies, and long-run growth," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4469, The World Bank.
  30. Zaiter Lahimer, Mahjouba, 2011. "L’impact des entrées de capitaux privés sur la croissance économique dans les pays en développement," Economics Thesis from University Paris Dauphine, Paris Dauphine University, number 123456789/7670 edited by Sterdyniak, Henri.
  31. Hondroyiannis, George & Lolos, Sarantis & Papapetrou, Evangelia, 2005. "Financial markets and economic growth in Greece, 1986-1999," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 15(2), pages 173-188, April.
  32. Kun Guo & Wei-Xing Zhou & Si-Wei Cheng & Didier Sornette, 2011. "The US stock market leads the Federal funds rate and Treasury bond yields," Papers 1102.2138, arXiv.org.
  33. Luintel, Kul B. & Khan, Mosahid & Arestis, Philip & Theodoridis, Konstantinos, 2008. "Financial structure and economic growth," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 86(1), pages 181-200, April.
  34. Engelbert Stockhammer & Paul Ramskogler, 2009. "Wie weiter? Zur Zukunft des Postkeynesianismus," Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft - WuG, Kammer für Arbeiter und Angestellte für Wien, Abteilung Wirtschaftswissenschaft und Statistik, vol. 35(3), pages 329-354.
  35. Shahbaz, Muhammad & Shabbir, Shahbaz Muhammad & Butt, Muhammad Sabihuddin, 2011. "Effect of financial development on agricultural growth in Pakistan: new extensions from bounds test to level relationships and granger causality tests," MPRA Paper 34162, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 16 Oct 2011.
  36. Singh, Ajit, 2010. "Are the Institutions of the Stock Market and the Market for Corporate Control Evolutionary Advances for Developing Countries?," MPRA Paper 24346, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  37. Robert Pollin & Dean Baker & Marc Schaberg, 2003. "Securities Transaction Taxes for U.S. Financial Markets," Eastern Economic Journal, Eastern Economic Association, vol. 29(4), pages 527-558, Fall.
  38. Santonu Basu, 2006. "Structural Problems in Financing Development: Issues Relating to India," International Review of Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 20(1), pages 85-101.
  39. Jordan Shan & Jianhong Qi, 2006. "Does Financial Development 'Lead' Economic Growth? The Case of China," Annals of Economics and Finance, Society for AEF, vol. 7(1), pages 197-216, May.
  40. Xun Lu & Dietrich Fausten & Russell Smyth, 2007. "Financial Development, Capital Accumulation and Productivity Improvement: Evidence from China," Journal of Chinese Economic and Business Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 5(3), pages 227-242.
  41. Miankhel, Adil Khan & Kalirajan, Kaliappa & Thangavelu, Shandre, 2010. "Integration, decoupling and the global financial crisis: A global perspective," MPRA Paper 22837, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  42. Enrico Berkes & Ugo Panizza & Jean-Louis Arcand, 2012. "Too Much Finance?," IMF Working Papers 12/161, International Monetary Fund.
  43. Paul Wachtel & Peter L. Rousseau, 2010. "Economic Growth and Financial Depth: Is the Relationship Extinct Already?," Working Papers id:3225, eSocialSciences.
  44. J.A. Bikker & H. Hu, 2003. "Cyclical Patterns in Profits, Provisioning and Lending of Banks," DNB Staff Reports (discontinued) 86, Netherlands Central Bank.
  45. Fan, Xuejun & Jacobs, Jan & Lensink, Robert, 2005. "Chicken or egg: financial development and economic growth in China, 1992-2004," CCSO Working Papers 200509, University of Groningen, CCSO Centre for Economic Research.
  46. Rudra P. Pradhan, 2011. "Financial Development, Growth and Stock Market Development: The Trilateral Analysis in India," Journal of Quantitative Economics, The Indian Econometric Society, vol. 9(1), pages 134-145.
  47. repec:nrb:journl:v:24:y:2012:i:2:p:3 is not listed on IDEAS
  48. Sallahuddin Hassan & Zalila Othman & Mohd Zaini Abd Karim, 2011. "Private and Public Investment in Malaysia: A Panel Time-Series Analysis," International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues, Econjournals, vol. 1(4), pages 199-210.
  49. Luis Lanteri, 2013. "Stock Market Development and Economic Growth. Some Evidence for Argentina," BCRA Working Paper Series 201360, Central Bank of Argentina, Economic Research Department.
  50. Ram Sharan Kharel Ph.D. & Dilli Ram Pokhrel Ph.D., . "Does Nepal's Financial Structure Matter for Economic Growth?," NRB working Paper 10/2012, Nepal Rastra Bank, Research Department.
  51. Sarkar, Prabirjit, 2007. "Capital Accumulation in Less Developed Countries: Does Stock Market Matter?," MPRA Paper 5053, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  52. Kar, Muhsin & NazlIoglu, Saban & AgIr, Hüseyin, 2011. "Financial development and economic growth nexus in the MENA countries: Bootstrap panel granger causality analysis," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 28(1-2), pages 685-693, January.
  53. Philip Arestis & Ambika D. Luintel & Kul B. Luintel, 2004. "Does Financial Structure Matter?," Economics Working Paper Archive wp_399, Levy Economics Institute, The.
  54. Bangake, Chrysost & Eggoh, Jude C., 2011. "Further evidence on finance-growth causality: A panel data analysis," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 35(2), pages 176-188, June.
  55. Ram Sharan Kharel Ph.D. & Dilli Ram Pokhrel Ph.D., 2012. "Does Nepal's Financial Structure Matter for Economic Growth?," NRB Economic Review, Nepal Rastra Bank, Research Department, vol. 24(2), pages 31-46, October.
  56. Beck, Thorsten & Levine, Ross, 2004. "Stock markets, banks, and growth: Panel evidence," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 28(3), pages 423-442, March.
  57. Engelbert Stockhammer & Paul Ramskogler, 2009. "Post-Keynesian economics How to move forward," European Journal of Economics and Economic Policies: Intervention, Edward Elgar, vol. 6(2), pages 227-246.
  58. Yang, Yong & Mallick, Sushanta, 2014. "Explaining cross-country differences in exporting performance: The role of country-level macroeconomic environment," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 23(1), pages 246-259.
  59. Yang, Benhua, 2011. "Political democratization, economic liberalization, and growth volatility," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 39(2), pages 245-259, June.
  60. Ferro, Gustavo & Antón Rodríguez, Martín, 2007. "Crédito, producto y eficiencia en la producción de crecimiento
    [Credit, production and efficiency in the production of growth]
    ," MPRA Paper 15094, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised Mar 2009.
  61. Nicholas Apergis & Ioannis Filippidis & Claire Economidou, 2007. "Financial Deepening and Economic Growth Linkages: A Panel Data Analysis," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer, vol. 143(1), pages 179-198, April.
  62. Michail Karoglou & Panicos Demetriades & Siong Law, 2011. "One date, one break?," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 41(1), pages 7-24, August.
  63. Jérôme Creel & Paul Hubert & Fabien Labondance, 2013. "Financial stability and economic performance," Documents de Travail de l'OFCE 2013-24, Observatoire Francais des Conjonctures Economiques (OFCE).
  64. Abu Nurudeen, 2009. "Does Stock Market Development Raise Economic Growth? Evidence from Nigeria," The Review of Finance and Banking, Academia de Studii Economice din Bucuresti, Romania / Facultatea de Finante, Asigurari, Banci si Burse de Valori / Catedra de Finante, vol. 1(1), pages 015-026, December.
  65. André Farber & Nguyen Huu Tu & Tran Tri Dung & Quan Hoang Vuong, 2008. "The financial storms in Vietnam's transition economy: a reasoning on the 1991-2008 period," Working Papers CEB 08-023.RS, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
  66. Hsu, Sara & Li, Jianjun, 2012. "“Ideal” financial development and financial overaccumulation," MPRA Paper 38035, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  67. Juncal Cunado & Javier Gómez Biscarri & Fernando Pérez de Gracia, 2003. "Structural Changes in Volatility and Stock Market Development: Evidence for Spain," Faculty Working Papers 06/03, School of Economics and Business Administration, University of Navarra.
  68. Nieuwerburgh, Stijn Van & Buelens, Frans & Cuyvers, Ludo, 2006. "Stock market development and economic growth in Belgium," Explorations in Economic History, Elsevier, vol. 43(1), pages 13-38, January.
  69. Soultanaeva, Albina, 2010. "Financial Intermediation and Economic Growth: Evidence from the Baltic countries," UmeÃ¥ Economic Studies 817, Umeå University, Department of Economics.
  70. Erick Lahura & Marco Vega, 2013. "The dynamic relationship between stock market development and economic activity evidence from Peru, 1965-2011," Documentos de Trabajo 2013-369, Departamento de Economía - Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú.
  71. Muhammad Arshad Khan & Abdul Qayyum, 2007. "Trade Liberalisation, Financial Development and Economic Growth," PIDE-Working Papers 2007:19, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics.
  72. Najeb Masoud & Glenn Hardaker, 2012. "The impact of financial development on economic growth: Empirical analysis of emerging market countries," Studies in Economics and Finance, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 29(3), pages 148-173, August.
  73. Liu, Wan-Chun & Hsu, Chen-Min, 2006. "The role of financial development in economic growth: The experiences of Taiwan, Korea, and Japan," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 17(4), pages 667-690, October.
  74. Ikonen, Pasi, 2010. "Effect of finance on growth through more efficient utilization of technological innovations," Research Discussion Papers 21/2010, Bank of Finland.
  75. Sverre Herstad, 2011. "Paradigms, Regimes and the Shifting Notions of Institutional Best Practice," Journal of the Knowledge Economy, Springer, vol. 2(2), pages 173-191, June.
  76. Cagri S. Kumru & Saran Sarntisart, 2013. "Implications of Alternative Banking Systems," ANU Working Papers in Economics and Econometrics 2013-601, Australian National University, College of Business and Economics, School of Economics.
  77. Kondo, Kazumine & Harimaya, Kozo, 2013. "Why Do Japanese Non-Local Regional Banks Enter Other Prefectures Under the Region-Based Relationship Banking Policy?," MPRA Paper 51134, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  78. Haukioja, Teemu & Hahl, Jarmo, 2001. "The Emergence of the New Economy, and its Challenge to Financial Intermediation and Banking," Discussion Papers 772, The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy.
  79. Augusto de la Torre & Sergio L. Schmukler, 2007. "Emerging Capital Markets and Globalization : The Latin American Experience," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 7187, March.
  80. Sylvain Martel, 2005. "Y a-t-il eu surinvestissement au Canada durant la seconde moitié des années 1990?," Working Papers 05-5, Bank of Canada.
  81. Veronika Dolar & Césaire Meh, 2002. "Financial Structure and Economic Growth: A Non-Technical Survey," Working Papers 02-24, Bank of Canada.
  82. Zhang, Jin & Wang, Lanfang & Wang, Susheng, 2012. "Financial development and economic growth: Recent evidence from China," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(3), pages 393-412.
  83. Agarwal, Sumit & Mohtadi, Hamid, 2004. "Financial markets and the financing choice of firms: Evidence from developing countries," Global Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 15(1), pages 57-70.
  84. Jacqueline Irving, 2005. "Regional Integration of Stock Exchanges in Eastern and Southern Africa: Progress and Prospects," IMF Working Papers 05/122, International Monetary Fund.
  85. Andong Zhu & Michael Ash & Robert Pollin, 2004. "Stock Market Liquidity and Economic Growth: a Critical Appraisal of the Levine/Zervos Model," International Review of Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 18(1), pages 1-8.
  86. Wu, Jyh-Lin & Hou, Han & Cheng, Su-Yin, 2010. "The dynamic impacts of financial institutions on economic growth: Evidence from the European Union," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 32(3), pages 879-891, September.
  87. Philip Arestis, 2003. "Financial Sector Reforms in Developing Countries with Special Reference to Egypt," Economics Working Paper Archive wp_383, Levy Economics Institute, The.
  88. Castaneda, Gonzalo, 2006. "Economic growth and concentrated ownership in stock markets," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 59(2), pages 249-286, February.
  89. Simon Deakin & Panicos Demetriades & Gregory James, 2008. "Creditor Protection and Banking System Development in India," WEF Working Papers 0038, ESRC World Economy and Finance Research Programme, Birkbeck, University of London.
  90. Ross Levine, 2003. "More on finance and growth: more finance, more growth?," Review, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, issue Jul, pages 31-46.
  91. Kim, Jong Hun & Rousseau, Peter L., 2012. "Credit buildups and the stock market in four East Asian economies," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 34(2), pages 489-503.
  92. Enisan, Akinlo A. & Olufisayo, Akinlo O., 2009. "Stock market development and economic growth: Evidence from seven sub-Sahara African countries," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 61(2), pages 162-171.
  93. Salvador Perez-Moreno, 2011. "Financial development and poverty in developing countries: a causal analysis," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 41(1), pages 57-80, August.
  94. James B. Ang, 2008. "A Survey Of Recent Developments In The Literature Of Finance And Growth," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 22(3), pages 536-576, 07.
  95. Florian Pelgrin & Sebastian Schich, 2002. "Panel Cointegration Analysis of the Finance-Investment Link in OECD Countries," Documents de Travail de l'OFCE 2002-02, Observatoire Francais des Conjonctures Economiques (OFCE).
  96. Sultan Mehmood, 2013. "Access to External Finance and Innovation: A Macroeconomic Perspective," CPB Discussion Paper 218, CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis.
  97. Philip Arestis & Panicos Demetriades & Bassam Fattouh, 2002. "Financial Policies and the Aggregate Productivity of the Capital Stock: Evidence from Developed and Developing Economies," Economics Working Paper Archive wp_362, Levy Economics Institute, The.
  98. Raj Aggarwal & Brian M. Lucey & Cal Muckley, 2004. "Dynamics of Equity Market Integration in Europe: Evidence of Changes over time and with events," The Institute for International Integration Studies Discussion Paper Series iiisdp019, IIIS.
  99. Polat, Ali & Shahbaz, Muhammad & Ur Rehman, Ijaz & Satti, Saqlain Latif, 2013. "Revisiting Linkages between Financial Development, Trade Openness and Economic Growth in South Africa: Fresh Evidence from Combined Cointegration Test," MPRA Paper 51724, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 25 Nov 2013.
  100. Fukuda, Takashi & Dahalan, Jauhari, 2011. "Finance-Growth-Crisis Nexus in India: Evidence from Cointegration and Causality Assessment," MPRA Paper 39467, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  101. Md. Al-Mamun, 2013. "The Effect of Macroeconomic & Market Specific Dynamics on Stock Market Development in Global Growth Generator Countries," Asian Economic and Financial Review, Asian Economic and Social Society, vol. 3(9), pages 1152-1169, September.
  102. Antzoulatos, Angelos A. & Tsoumas, Chris, 2010. "Financial development and household portfolios - Evidence from Spain, the U.K. and the U.S," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 29(2), pages 300-314, March.
  103. Carettoni, A & Manzocchi, S & Padoan, P.C., 2001. "The Growth-Finance Nexus and European Integration. A Review of the Literature," EIFC - Technology and Finance Working Papers 5, United Nations University, Institute for New Technologies.
  104. repec:ebl:ecbull:v:3:y:2007:i:69:p:1-13 is not listed on IDEAS
  105. Rodolfo Cermeño & Last: Cermeño & María José Roa & Last: Roa, 2013. "Desarrollo financiero, crecimiento y volatidad: Revisión de la literatura reciente," Documentos de Investigación - Research Papers 9, Centro de Estudios Monetarios Latinoamericanos, CEMLA.
  106. Anthony Enisan Akinlo & Tajudeen Egbetunde, 2010. "Financial Development and Economic Growth: The Experience of 10 Sub-Saharan African Countries Revisited," The Review of Finance and Banking, Academia de Studii Economice din Bucuresti, Romania / Facultatea de Finante, Asigurari, Banci si Burse de Valori / Catedra de Finante, vol. 2(1), pages 017-028, June.
  107. Cooray, Arusha, 2010. "Do stock markets lead to economic growth?," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 32(4), pages 448-460, July.
  108. Mariani, Fabio & Padoan, Pierre Carlo, 2003. "The Growth-Finance Nexus and European Integration: A Macroeconomic Perspective," EIFC - Technology and Finance Working Papers 23, United Nations University, Institute for New Technologies.
  109. Ayadi, Rym & Arbak, Emrah & Ben-Naceur, Sami & De Groen, Willem Pieter, 2013. "Financial Development, Bank Efficiency and Economic Growth across the Mediterranean," CEPS Papers 7832, Centre for European Policy Studies.