Reconsidering Gender Bias in Intra-Household Allocation in India
AbstractDetecting gender discrimination among children in the intra-household allocation of goods from household surveys has often proven to be difficult. This paper uses some of the commonly used techniques in this field to analyze education expenditures in India. Contrary to most previous research, I find evidence of discrimination against girls. Results at the all-India level are robust to the statistical method and the education expenditure measure, while they are more sensitive to changes in the analysis at the state level. In general, girls experience gender discrimination especially from age 10 onwards, with almost universal disadvantage in the amount of education expenditures in the group of 15-19 year olds.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) in its series IZA Discussion Papers with number 5687.
Length: 40 pages
Date of creation: Apr 2011
Date of revision:
Contact details of provider:
Postal: IZA, P.O. Box 7240, D-53072 Bonn, Germany
Phone: +49 228 3894 223
Fax: +49 228 3894 180
Web page: http://www.iza.org
Postal: IZA, Margard Ody, P.O. Box 7240, D-53072 Bonn, Germany
Other versions of this item:
- Laura Zimmermann, 2012. "Reconsidering Gender Bias in Intrahousehold Allocation in India," The Journal of Development Studies, Taylor and Francis Journals, vol. 48(1), pages 151-163, September.
- I24 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Education and Inequality
- I25 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Education and Economic Development
- J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
- O15 - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Economic Development: Human Resources; Human Development; Income Distribution; Migration
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2011-05-14 (All new papers)
- NEP-DEV-2011-05-14 (Development)
- NEP-HME-2011-05-14 (Heterodox Microeconomics)
- NEP-LAB-2011-05-14 (Labour Economics)
- NEP-LTV-2011-05-14 (Unemployment, Inequality & Poverty)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Morduch, J. & Stern, H.S., 1995.
"Using Mixture Models to Detect Sex Bias in Health Outcomes in Bangladesh,"
513, Harvard - Institute for International Development.
- Morduch, Jonathan J. & Stern, Hal S., 1997. "Using mixture models to detect sex bias in health outcomes in Bangladesh," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 77(1), pages 259-276, March.
- Jonathan J. Morduch & Hall S. Stern, 1995. "Using Mixture Models to Detect Sex Bias in Health Outcomes in Bangladesh," Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers 1728, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
- Rozana Himaz, 2008. "Intrahousehold Allocation of Education Expenditure and Returns to Education: The Case of Sri Lanka," Economics Series Working Papers 393, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
- Gibson, John & Rozelle, Scott, 2000.
"Is It Better To Be A Boy? A Disaggregated Outlay Equivalent Analysis Of Gender Bias In Papua New Guinea,"
11990, University of California, Davis, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics.
- John Gibson & Scott Rozelle, 2004. "Is it Better to be a Boy? A Disaggregated Outlay Equivalent Analysis of Gender Bias in Papua New Guinea," The Journal of Development Studies, Taylor and Francis Journals, vol. 40(4), pages 115-136.
- Geeta Gandhi Kingdon, 2007.
"The progress of school education in India,"
Oxford Review of Economic Policy,
Oxford University Press, vol. 23(2), pages 168-195, Summer.
- Gong, Xiaodong & van Soest, Arthur & Zhang, Ping, 2000.
"Sexual Bias and Household Consumption: A Semiparametric Analysis of Engel Curves in Rural China,"
IZA Discussion Papers
212, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Gong, X. & Soest, A.H.O. van & Zhang, P., 2000. "Sexual Bias and Household Consumption: A Semiparametic Analysis of Engel curves in Rural China," Discussion Paper 2000-45, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
- Monazza Aslam & Geeta Kingdon, 2005.
"Gender and Household Education Expenditure in Pakistan,"
Economics Series Working Papers
GPRG-WPS-025, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
- Monazza Aslam & Geeta Gandhi Kingdon, 2008. "Gender and household education expenditure in Pakistan," Applied Economics, Taylor and Francis Journals, vol. 40(20), pages 2573-2591.
- Messer, Ellen, 1997. "Intra-household allocation of food and health care: Current findings and understandings--Introduction," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 44(11), pages 1675-1684, June.
- Kingdon, Geeta Gandhi, 2005. "Where Has All the Bias Gone? Detecting Gender Bias in the Intrahousehold Allocation of Educational Expenditure," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 53(2), pages 409-51, January.
- Sonia Bhalotra & Cliff Attfield, 1998.
"Intrahousehold resource allocation in rural Pakistan: a semiparametric analysis,"
Journal of Applied Econometrics,
John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 13(5), pages 463-480.
- Cliff Attfield & Sonia R Bhalotra, 1998. "Intrahousehold Resource Allocation in Rural Pakistan: A Semi-parametric Analysis," STICERD - Development Economics Papers - From 2008 this series has been superseded by Economic Organisation and Public Policy Discussion Papers 11, Suntory and Toyota International Centres for Economics and Related Disciplines, LSE.
- Subramanian, S. & Deaton, A., 1990. "Gender Effects In Indian Consumption Patterns," Papers 147, Princeton, Woodrow Wilson School - Development Studies.
- John Gibson, 1997. "Testing for boy-girl discrimination with household expenditure data: results for Papua New Guinea," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor and Francis Journals, vol. 4(10), pages 643-646.
- Zimmermann, Laura, 2012. "Remember When It Rained: The Elusiveness of Gender Discrimination in Indian School Enrollment," IZA Discussion Papers 6833, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Mark Fallak).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.