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Reconsidering Gender Bias in Intra-Household Allocation in India

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  • Zimmermann, Laura

    ()
    (University of Michigan)

Abstract

Detecting gender discrimination among children in the intra-household allocation of goods from household surveys has often proven to be difficult. This paper uses some of the commonly used techniques in this field to analyze education expenditures in India. Contrary to most previous research, I find evidence of discrimination against girls. Results at the all-India level are robust to the statistical method and the education expenditure measure, while they are more sensitive to changes in the analysis at the state level. In general, girls experience gender discrimination especially from age 10 onwards, with almost universal disadvantage in the amount of education expenditures in the group of 15-19 year olds.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) in its series IZA Discussion Papers with number 5687.

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Length: 40 pages
Date of creation: Apr 2011
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp5687

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Keywords: education expenditures; India; gender discrimination; intra-household allocation;

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References

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  1. Monazza Aslam & Geeta Kingdon, 2005. "Gender and Household Education Expenditure in Pakistan," Economics Series Working Papers GPRG-WPS-025, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
  2. Gong, X. & Soest, A.H.O. van & Zhang, P., 2000. "Sexual Bias and Household Consumption: A Semiparametic Analysis of Engel curves in Rural China," Discussion Paper 2000-45, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
  3. Geeta Gandhi Kingdon, 2007. "The progress of school education in India," Economics Series Working Papers GPRG-WPS-071, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
  4. Messer, Ellen, 1997. "Intra-household allocation of food and health care: Current findings and understandings--Introduction," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 44(11), pages 1675-1684, June.
  5. Morduch, J. & Stern, H.S., 1995. "Using Mixture Models to Detect Sex Bias in Health Outcomes in Bangladesh," Papers 513, Harvard - Institute for International Development.
  6. Rozana Himaz, 2008. "Intrahousehold Allocation of Education Expenditure and Returns to Education: The Case of Sri Lanka," Economics Series Working Papers 393, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
  7. Kingdon, Geeta Gandhi, 2005. "Where Has All the Bias Gone? Detecting Gender Bias in the Intrahousehold Allocation of Educational Expenditure," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 53(2), pages 409-51, January.
  8. Sonia Bhalotra & Cliff Attfield, 1998. "Intrahousehold resource allocation in rural Pakistan: a semiparametric analysis," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 13(5), pages 463-480.
  9. Subramanian, S. & Deaton, A., 1990. "Gender Effects In Indian Consumption Patterns," Papers 147, Princeton, Woodrow Wilson School - Development Studies.
  10. Gibson, John & Rozelle, Scott, 2000. "Is It Better To Be A Boy? A Disaggregated Outlay Equivalent Analysis Of Gender Bias In Papua New Guinea," Working Papers 11990, University of California, Davis, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics.
  11. John Gibson, 1997. "Testing for boy-girl discrimination with household expenditure data: results for Papua New Guinea," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 4(10), pages 643-646.
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Cited by:
  1. Zimmermann, Laura, 2012. "Remember When It Rained: The Elusiveness of Gender Discrimination in Indian School Enrollment," IZA Discussion Papers 6833, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).

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