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Gender and household education expenditure in Pakistan

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  • Monazza Aslam
  • Geeta Gandhi Kingdon

Abstract

Pakistan has very large gender gaps in educational outcomes. One explanation could be that girls receive lower educational expenditure allocations than boys within the household, but this has never convincingly been tested. This article investigates whether the intra-household allocation of educational expenditure in Pakistan favours males over females. It also explores two different explanations for the failure of the extant 'Engel curve' studies to detect gender-differentiated treatment in education even where gender bias is strongly expected. Using individual level data from the latest household survey from Pakistan, we posit two potential channels of gender bias: bias in the decision whether to enrol/keep sons and daughters in school, and bias in the decision of education expenditure conditional on enrolling both sons and daughters in school. In middle and secondary school ages, evidence points to significant pro-male biases in both the enrolment decision as well as the decision of how much to spend conditional on enrolment. However, in the primary school age-group, only the former channel of bias applies. Results suggest that the observed strong gender difference in education expenditure is a within rather than an across household phenomenon.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Taylor & Francis Journals in its journal Applied Economics.

Volume (Year): 40 (2008)
Issue (Month): 20 ()
Pages: 2573-2591

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Handle: RePEc:taf:applec:v:40:y:2008:i:20:p:2573-2591

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Cited by:
  1. Husain, Zakir & Dutta, Mousumi & Saha, Manashi, 2011. "Gender disparities in primary education across siblings: is intra household disparity higher in regions with low child sex ratios?," MPRA Paper 30791, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  2. Andreas Georgiadis & Alan Manning, 2011. "Change and continuity among minority communities in Britain," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 24(2), pages 541-568, April.
  3. Zimmermann, Laura, 2011. "Reconsidering Gender Bias in Intra-Household Allocation in India," IZA Discussion Papers 5687, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  4. Mehtabul Azam & Geeta Kingdon, 2011. "Are girls the fairer sex in India? Revisiting intra-household allocation of education expenditure," DoQSS Working Papers 11-03, Department of Quantitative Social Science - Institute of Education, University of London.
  5. Zimmermann, Laura, 2012. "Remember When It Rained: The Elusiveness of Gender Discrimination in Indian School Enrollment," IZA Discussion Papers 6833, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  6. Andy Dickerson & Steven McIntosh & Christine Valente, . "Do The Maths: An Analysis Of The Gender Gap In Mathematics In AfricaAbstract: This paper uses microdata for 19 African countries to examine the gender difference in maths test scores amongst primary s," The Centre for Market and Public Organisation 13/300, Department of Economics, University of Bristol, UK.
  7. Monazza Aslam, 2006. "Rates of Return to Education by Gender in Pakistan," Economics Series Working Papers GPRG-WPS-064, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
  8. Cristina Cattaneo, 2012. "Migrants’ international transfers and educational expenditure," The Economics of Transition, The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, vol. 20(1), pages 163-193, 01.
  9. Seewanyana, Sarah & Kasirye, Ibrahim, 2010. "Gender differences in Uganda: the case for access to education and health services," Research Series 113612, Economic Policy Research Centre (EPRC).
  10. Dickerson, Andy & McIntosh, Steven & Valente, Christine, 2013. "Do the Maths: An Analysis of the Gender Gap in Mathematics in Africa," IZA Discussion Papers 7174, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).

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