Schooling Costs and Child Work in Rural Pakistan
AbstractA conventional argument in the child-labour debate is that improvements in access to schools are an effective way to reduce the labour force participation of children. It is argued that schooling competes with economic activity in the use of children's time, and enhanced access to schools, interpretable as reduction in schooling costs, may raise school attendance at the expense of child labour. In this article, we draw a distinction between child labour within the household (intra-household) and child work in the labour market (extra-household), and examine the separate effects of schooling costs upon these two types of child labour in rural Pakistan. Consistent, at least in part, with our theoretical framework, we find that extra-household child labour and schooling costs are positively related whereas intra-household child labour is insensitive to changes in the costs of schooling. Our results suggest that reduction in schooling costs will have limited success in the abatement of child labour in rural Pakistan.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
Bibliographic InfoArticle provided by Taylor & Francis Journals in its journal Journal of Development Studies.
Volume (Year): 39 (2003)
Issue (Month): 5 ()
Contact details of provider:
Web page: http://www.tandfonline.com/FJDS20
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Peter Jensen & Helena Skyt Nielsen, 1997.
"Child labour or school attendance? Evidence from Zambia,"
Journal of Population Economics,
Springer, vol. 10(4), pages 407-424.
- Jensen, P. & Nielsen, H.S., 1996. "Child Labour or School Attendance? Evidence from Zambia," Papers 96-14, Centre for Labour Market and Social Research, Danmark-.
- Ray, R., 1998.
"Analysis of Child Labour in Peru and Pakistan: a Comparative Study,"
1998-05, Tasmania - Department of Economics.
- Ranjan Ray, 2000. "Analysis of child labour in Peru and Pakistan: A comparative study," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 13(1), pages 3-19.
- Benjamin, Dwayne, 1992. "Household Composition, Labor Markets, and Labor Demand: Testing for Separation in Agricultural Household Models," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 60(2), pages 287-322, March.
- Harold Alderman & Jere R. Behrman & David R. Ross & Richard Sabot, 1996. "Decomposing the Gender Gap in Cognitive Skills in a Poor Rural Economy," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 31(1), pages 229-254.
- Bedi, Arjun S. & Marshall, Jeffery H., 2002.
"Primary school attendance in Honduras,"
Journal of Development Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 69(1), pages 129-153, October.
- George Psacharopoulos & Harry Anthony Patrinos, 1997. "Family size, schooling and child labor in Peru - An empirical analysis," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 10(4), pages 387-405.
- Hideo Akabayashi & George Psacharopoulos, 1999. "The trade-off between child labour and human capital formation: A Tanzanian case study," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 35(5), pages 120-140.
- George Psacharopoulos, 1997. "Child labor versus educational attainment Some evidence from Latin America," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 10(4), pages 377-386.
- Ravallion, Martin & Wodon, Quentin, 1999.
"Does child labor displace schooling? - evidence on behavioral responses to an enrollment subsidy,"
Policy Research Working Paper Series
2116, The World Bank.
- Ravallion, Martin & Wodon, Quentin, 2000. "Does Child Labour Displace Schooling? Evidence on Behavioural Responses to an Enrollment Subsidy," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 110(462), pages C158-75, March.
- Levy, Victor, 1985. "Cropping Pattern, Mechanization, Child Labor, and Fertility Behavior in a Farming Economy: Rural Egypt," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 33(4), pages 777-91, July.
- Heckman, James J, 1974. "Shadow Prices, Market Wages, and Labor Supply," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 42(4), pages 679-94, July.
- Amemiya, Takeshi, 1984. "Tobit models: A survey," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 24(1-2), pages 3-61.
- Basu, Kaushik & Van, Pham Hoang, 1998. "The Economics of Child Labor," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 88(3), pages 412-27, June.
- Goulart, Pedro & Bedi, Arjun S., 2008.
"Child labour and educational success in Portugal,"
Economics of Education Review,
Elsevier, vol. 27(5), pages 575-587, October.
- Edmonds, Eric V., 2008.
Handbook of Development Economics,
- Monazza Aslam & Geeta Gandhi Kingdon, 2008.
"Gender and household education expenditure in Pakistan,"
Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 40(20), pages 2573-2591.
- Monazza Aslam & Geeta Kingdon, 2005. "Gender and Household Education Expenditure in Pakistan," Economics Series Working Papers GPRG-WPS-025, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
- Admassie, A. & Bedi, A.S., 2003. "Attending school : two 'Rs' and child work in rural Ethiopia," ISS Working Papers - General Series 19146, International Institute of Social Studies of Erasmus University Rotterdam (ISS), The Hague.
- Sudipta Sarangi & Gautam Hararika, .
"Household Access to Microcredit and Child Work in Rural Malawi,"
Departmental Working Papers
2006-08, Department of Economics, Louisiana State University.
- Hazarika, Gautam & Sarangi, Sudipta, 2008. "Household Access to Microcredit and Child Work in Rural Malawi," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 36(5), pages 843-859, May.
- Hazarika, Gautam & Sarangi, Sudipta, 2005. "Household Access to Microcredit and Child Work in Rural Malawi," IZA Discussion Papers 1567, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Sudipta Sarangi & Gautam Hararika, . "Household Access to Microcredit and Child Work in Rural Malawi," Departmental Working Papers 2007-09, Department of Economics, Louisiana State University.
- Hazarika, Gautam & Bedi, Arjun S., 2006. "Child Work and Schooling Costs in Rural Northern India," IZA Discussion Papers 2136, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Francesca Francavilla & Gianna Claudia Giannelli, 2010. "The relation between child work and the employment of mothers in India," International Journal of Manpower, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 31(2), pages 232-257, May.
- Marito Garcia & Jean Fares, 2008. "Youth in Africa's Labor Market," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 6578, January.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Michael McNulty).
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.