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The influence of market wages and parental history on child labour and schooling in Egypt

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  • Wahba, J.
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    Abstract

    This paper examines the influence of adult market wages and having parents who were child labourers on child labour, when this decision is jointly determined with child schooling, using data from Egypt. The empirical results suggest that low adult market wages are key determinants of child labour; a 10 percent increase in the illiterate male market wage decreases the probability of child labour by 22 percent for boys and 13 percent for girls. The findings also indicate the importance of social norms in the inter-generational persistence of child labour: parents who were child labourers themselves are on average 10 percent more likely to send their children to work. In addition, higher local regional income inequality increases the likelihood of child labour.

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    File URL: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/39648/1/0603.pdf
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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by Economics Division, School of Social Sciences, University of Southampton in its series Discussion Paper Series In Economics And Econometrics with number 0603.

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    Date of creation: 01 Jan 2006
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    Handle: RePEc:stn:sotoec:0603

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    1. Bhalotra, Sonia & Heady, Christopher, 2001. "Child farm labour : the wealth paradox," Social Protection Discussion Papers 24088, The World Bank.
    2. Jensen, P. & Nielsen, H.S., 1996. "Child Labour or School Attendance? Evidence from Zambia," Papers, Centre for Labour Market and Social Research, Danmark- 96-14, Centre for Labour Market and Social Research, Danmark-.
    3. Ranjan, Priya, 1999. "An economic analysis of child labor," Economics Letters, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 64(1), pages 99-105, July.
    4. Sonia Bhalotra, 2007. "Is Child Work Necessary?," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 69(1), pages 29-55, 02.
    5. Kaushik Basu, 1999. "Child Labor: Cause, Consequence, and Cure, with Remarks on International Labor Standards," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 37(3), pages 1083-1119, September.
    6. Canagarajah, Sudharshan & Coulombe, Harold, 1997. "Child labor and schooling in Ghana," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1844, The World Bank.
    7. Mary Corcoran & Roger H. Gordon & Deborah Laren & Gary Solon, 1989. "Effects of Family and Community Background on Men's Economic Status," NBER Working Papers 2896, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    8. Ray, R., 1998. "Analysis of Child Labour in Peru and Pakistan: a Comparative Study," Papers, Tasmania - Department of Economics 1998-05, Tasmania - Department of Economics.
    9. George Psacharopoulos & Harry Anthony Patrinos, 1997. "Family size, schooling and child labor in Peru - An empirical analysis," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, Springer, vol. 10(4), pages 387-405.
    10. Basu, Kaushik & Van, Pham Hoang, 1998. "The Economics of Child Labor," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 88(3), pages 412-27, June.
    11. Solon, Gary, 1999. "Intergenerational mobility in the labor market," Handbook of Labor Economics, Elsevier, in: O. Ashenfelter & D. Card (ed.), Handbook of Labor Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 29, pages 1761-1800 Elsevier.
    12. Charles Diamond & Tammy Fayed, 1998. "Evidence on substitutability of adult and child labour," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 34(3), pages 62-70.
    13. Corcoran, Mary, et al, 1990. "Effects of Family and Community Background on Economic Status," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 80(2), pages 362-66, May.
    14. Levy, Victor, 1985. "Cropping Pattern, Mechanization, Child Labor, and Fertility Behavior in a Farming Economy: Rural Egypt," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, University of Chicago Press, vol. 33(4), pages 777-91, July.
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    Cited by:
    1. Michele Di Maio & Giorgio Fabbri, 2013. "Consumer boycott, household heterogeneity, and child labor," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, Springer, vol. 26(4), pages 1609-1630, October.
    2. Eric V. Edmonds, 2007. "Child Labor," NBER Working Papers 12926, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    3. Zapata, Daniela & Contreras, Dante & Kruger, Diana, 2011. "Child Labor and Schooling in Bolivia: Who's Falling Behind? The Roles of Domestic Work, Gender, and Ethnicity," World Development, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 39(4), pages 588-599, April.
    4. Goto, Hideaki, 2011. "Social norms, inequality and child labor," Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics (formerly The Journal of Socio-Economics), Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 40(6), pages 806-814.
    5. Eugenia Fotoniata & Thomas Moutos, 2011. "Product Quality, Informality, and Child Labour," CESifo Working Paper Series 3537, CESifo Group Munich.
    6. David SAHN & Francesca MARCHETTA, 2012. "The role of education and family background in marriage, childbearing and labor market participation in Senegal," Working Papers 201224, CERDI.
    7. Di Maio, Michele & Nandi, Tushar K., 2013. "The effect of the Israeli–Palestinian conflict on child labor and school attendance in the West Bank," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 100(1), pages 107-116.
    8. Jorge A. Paz & Carolina Piselli, 2010. "Trabajo y educación de niñas, niños y adolescentes en América Latina y el Caribe," Working Papers, Instituto de Estudios Laborales y del Desarrollo Económico (IELDE) - Universidad Nacional de Salta - Facultad de Ciencias Económicas, Jurídicas y Sociales 6, Instituto de Estudios Laborales y del Desarrollo Económico (IELDE) - Universidad Nacional de Salta - Facultad de Ciencias Económicas, Jurídicas y Sociales.
    9. Krisztina Kis-Katos, 2012. "Gender differences in work-schooling decisions in rural North India," Review of Economics of the Household, Springer, Springer, vol. 10(4), pages 491-519, December.

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