Does Child Labour Affect School Attendance and School Performance?Multi Country Evidence on SIMPOC data
AbstractThis paper provides evidence on the the impact of child labor on child schooling.The limited evidence that does exist on this issue makes little or no attempt to control for the endogeneity of child labour hours in the estimation.Such endogeneity can arise because of the reverse causation of child labour by learning dis advantage and lack of necessary intrinsic skills. The present study is conducted on the data sets of Belize,Cambodia,Namibia,Panama,Philippines,Portugal and Sri lanka, that were collected under the SIMPOC programme of the ILO.The study,that seeks to control for the endogeneity mentioned above, provides extensive evidence of the damage done by child labour to the child's education right from her point of entry to the labour market.A lone and significant exception is provided by the Sri Lankan results.The Sri Lankan evidence suggests a cut off point in the range of(approximately) 12-15 hours a week beyond which child work impacts negatively on the child's learning. This evidence is supportive of ILO Convention No. 138, Art. 7(b), which stipulates that "light work" may be permitted as of the age of 12 provided it does not "prejudice attendance at school".This is howvever not true of the evidence from other countries.One result that all the data sets agree on is the strong positive role that adult education plays in promoting the child's learning.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Econometric Society in its series Econometric Society 2004 Australasian Meetings with number 68.
Date of creation: 11 Aug 2004
Date of revision:
Contact details of provider:
Phone: 1 212 998 3820
Fax: 1 212 995 4487
Web page: http://www.econometricsociety.org/pastmeetings.asp
More information through EDIRC
Child Labor; Light Work; IV Estimation; 3 SLS Estimation;
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- I20 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - General
- O19 - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - International Linkages to Development; Role of International Organizations
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2004-10-30 (All new papers)
- NEP-EDU-2004-10-30 (Education)
- NEP-LAB-2004-10-30 (Labour Economics)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Orazem, Peter & Gunnarsson, Victoria, 2004. "Child Labour, School Attendance and Performance: A Review," Staff General Research Papers 11177, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
- Orazem, Peter F & Gunnarsson, Victoria, 2003. "Child labour, school attendance and academic performance : a review," ILO Working Papers 366541, International Labour Organization.
- Ranjan Ray, 2002.
"The Determinants of Child Labour and Child Schooling in Ghana,"
Journal of African Economies,
Centre for the Study of African Economies (CSAE), vol. 11(4), pages 561-590, December.
- Ray, R., 2000. "The Determinants of Child Labour and Child Schooling in Ghana," Papers 2000-5, Tasmania - Department of Economics.
- Christopher Heady, 2000. "What is the Effect of Child Labour on Learning Achievement? Evidence from Ghana," Innocenti Working Papers inwopa00/7, UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre.
- Maitra, P. & Ray, R., 2000.
"The Joint Estimation of Child Participation in Schooling and Employement: Comparative Evidence from Three Continents,"
2000-08, Tasmania - Department of Economics.
- Pushkar Maitra & Ranjan Ray, 2002. "The Joint Estimation of Child Participation in Schooling and Employment: Comparative Evidence from Three Continents," Oxford Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 30(1), pages 41-62.
- Pushkar Maitra & Ranjan Ray, 2000. "The Joint Estimation of Child Participation in Schooling and Employment: Comparative Evidence from Three Continents," ASARC Working Papers 2000-04, The Australian National University, Australia South Asia Research Centre.
- FurioCamillo Rosati & Zafiris Tzannatos, 2006. "Child Labour In Vietnam," Pacific Economic Review, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 11(1), pages 1-31, 02.
- Sonia Bhalotra, and Zafiris Tzannatos, 2003. "Child labor : what have we learnt?," Social Protection Discussion Papers 27872, The World Bank.
- Sonia Bhalotra, 2007.
"Is Child Work Necessary?,"
Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics,
Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 69(1), pages 29-55, 02.
- Sonia R Bhalotra, 2000. "Is Child Work Necessary?," STICERD - Development Economics Papers - From 2008 this series has been superseded by Economic Organisation and Public Policy Discussion Papers 26, Suntory and Toyota International Centres for Economics and Related Disciplines, LSE.
- Sonia Bhalotra, 2003. "Is Child Work Necessary?," Bristol Economics Discussion Papers 03/554, Department of Economics, University of Bristol, UK.
- Sonia Bhalotra, 2000. "Is Child Work Necessary?," Econometric Society World Congress 2000 Contributed Papers 0500, Econometric Society.
- Sonia Bhalotra, 2000. "Is child work necessary?," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 6652, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
- Bhalotra, Sonia, 2001. "Is child work necessary?," Social Protection Discussion Papers 24660, The World Bank.
- Hoddinott, John & Kinsey, Bill, 2001. " Child Growth in the Time of Drought," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 63(4), pages 409-36, September.
- Ravallion, Martin & Wodon, Quentin, 1999.
"Does child labor displace schooling? - evidence on behavioral responses to an enrollment subsidy,"
Policy Research Working Paper Series
2116, The World Bank.
- Ravallion, Martin & Wodon, Quentin, 2000. "Does Child Labour Displace Schooling? Evidence on Behavioural Responses to an Enrollment Subsidy," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 110(462), pages C158-75, March.
- Ray, Ranjan, 2000. "Child Labor, Child Schooling, and Their Interaction with Adult Labor: Empirical Evidence for Peru and Pakistan," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 14(2), pages 347-67, May.
- Basu, Kaushik, 1998.
"Child labor : cause, consequence, and cure, with remarks on International Labor Standards,"
Policy Research Working Paper Series
2027, The World Bank.
- Kaushik Basu, 1999. "Child Labor: Cause, Consequence, and Cure, with Remarks on International Labor Standards," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 37(3), pages 1083-1119, September.
- Jensen, P. & Nielsen, H.S., 1996.
"Child Labour or School Attendance? Evidence from Zambia,"
96-14, Centre for Labour Market and Social Research, Danmark-.
- Peter Jensen & Helena Skyt Nielsen, 1997. "Child labour or school attendance? Evidence from Zambia," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 10(4), pages 407-424.
- Ray, R., 1999. "Poverty, Household Size and Child Welfare in India," Papers 1999-01, Tasmania - Department of Economics.
- Ray, R., 1998.
"Analysis of Child Labour in Peru and Pakistan: a Comparative Study,"
1998-05, Tasmania - Department of Economics.
- Ranjan Ray, 2000. "Analysis of child labour in Peru and Pakistan: A comparative study," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 13(1), pages 3-19.
- Paul Glewwe, 2002. "Schools and Skills in Developing Countries: Education Policies and Socioeconomic Outcomes," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 40(2), pages 436-482, June.
- George Psacharopoulos & Harry Anthony Patrinos, 1997. "Family size, schooling and child labor in Peru - An empirical analysis," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 10(4), pages 387-405.
- Basu, Kaushik & Tzannatos, Zafiris, 2003.
"The Global Child Labor Problem: What Do We Know and What Can We Do?,"
03-06, Cornell University, Center for Analytic Economics.
- Kaushik Basu & Zafiris Tzannatos, 2003. "The Global Child Labor Problem: What Do We Know and What Can We Do?," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 17(2), pages 147-173, December.
- George Psacharopoulos, 1997. "Child labor versus educational attainment Some evidence from Latin America," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 10(4), pages 377-386.
- Hideo Akabayashi & George Psacharopoulos, 1999. "The trade-off between child labour and human capital formation: A Tanzanian case study," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 35(5), pages 120-140.
- F. Rosati & M. Rossi, 2001. "Children's Working Hours, School Enrolment and Human Capital Accumulation: Evidence from Pakistan and Nicaragua," UCW Working Paper 8, Understanding Children's Work (UCW Programme).
- Eric Edmonds, 2007.
- F. Francavilla & Gianna Claudia Giannelli & Leonardo Grilli, 2010.
"Mothers’ Employment and their Children’s Schooling: a Joint Multilevel Analysis for India,"
Working Papers - Economics
wp2010_07.rdf, Universita' degli Studi di Firenze, Dipartimento di Scienze per l'Economia e l'Impresa.
- Francavilla, Francesca & Giannelli, Gianna Claudia & Grilli, Leonardo, 2013. "Mothers’ Employment and their Children’s Schooling: A Joint Multilevel Analysis for India," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 183-195.
- Goulart, P. & Bedi, A.S., 2005.
"Child labour and educational success in Portugal,"
ISS Working Papers - General Series
19174, International Institute of Social Studies of Erasmus University Rotterdam (ISS), The Hague.
- Kathleen Beegle & Rajeev Dehejia & Roberta Gatti, 2009.
"Why Should We Care About Child Labor?: The Education, Labor Market, and Health Consequences of Child Labor,"
Journal of Human Resources,
University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 44(4).
- Kathleen Beegle & Rajeev Dehejia & Roberta Gatti, 2004. "Why Should We Care About Child Labor? The Education, Labor Market, and Health Consequences of Child Labor," NBER Working Papers 10980, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Beegle, Kathleen & Dehejia, Rajeev & Gatti, Roberta, 2005. "Why should we care about child labor? The education, labor market, and health consequences of child labor," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3479, The World Bank.
- Jean-Pierre Lachaud, 2007. "Scolarisation et travail des enfants : Un modèle économétrique à régimes endogènes appliqué à Madagascar - 2001-2005," Documents de travail 134, Groupe d'Economie du Développement de l'Université Montesquieu Bordeaux IV.
- Rasheda Khanam & Russell Ross, 2011. "Is child work a deterrent to school attendance and school attainment?: Evidence from Bangladesh," International Journal of Social Economics, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 38(8), pages 692-713, July.
- Khanam, Rasheda & Ross, Russell, 2005. "Impact of Child Labour on School Attendance and School Attainment: Evidence from Bangladesh," MPRA Paper 9397, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised Apr 2008.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Christopher F. Baum).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.