Advanced Search
MyIDEAS: Login to save this paper or follow this series

Le travail des enfants et la pauvreté en Afrique : un réexamen appliqué au Burkina Faso

Contents:

Author Info

Abstract

Fondée sur les enquêtes prioritaires auprès des ménages de 1998 et de 2003, l'étude met en évidence l'ampleur du travail des enfants – 44,1 pour cent des enfants de 5-14 ans sont « économiquement actifs » en 2003, un ratio comparable entre les filles et les garçons, sauf pour le groupe d'âge de 10-14 ans où les premières sont désavantagées –, et examine l'impact de la pauvreté sur ce phénomène. Deux principales conclusions en résultent. Premièrement, l'hypothèse de l' « axiome de luxe » semble relativement robuste. Un modèle probit bivarié montre que, toutes choses égales par ailleurs – en particulier, en contrôlant par les effets fixes des 45 provinces –, la proportion des enfants de 5-14 ans économiquement actifs est nettement supérieure dans les ménages « pauvres », comparativement aux ménages « non pauvres ». En même temps, les privations monétaires réduisent la probabilité de scolarisation, et une relation inverse entre la fréquentation scolaire et la participation des enfants au marché du travail prévaut. De même, une analyse économétrique spatiale en termes de régimes spatio-temporels, fondée sur un modèle auto-régressif mixte inhérent aux 45 provinces, montre que la pauvreté régionale, appréhendée par les indices FGT, affecte positivement le taux régional de participation des enfants de 10-14 ans au marché du travail. Un résultat analogue prévaut en 2003 pour les enfants âgés de 5-14 ans, mais les élasticités sont un peu plus élevées. Deuxièmement, la prise en compte de la vulnérabilité des ménages, c'est-à-dire le risque de pauvreté, renforce l'argument de la « gestion du risque » : le travail des enfants peut être le reflet d'une stratégie des ménages visant à minimiser le risque d'interruption du flux des ressources. L'étude montre que la variabilité du niveau de vie, mesurée par la variance des dépenses en termes de pauvreté transitoire, rehausse la probabilité de travail des enfants, tout réduisant les chances de scolarisation, comparativement aux ménages situés en dessus de la ligne de pauvreté, alors que la vulnérabilité des familles pauvres, imputable B une faiblesse chronique des dépenses – pauvres durables –, n'affecte pas la propension au travail des enfants, et, dans certains cas, leur scolarisation, par rapport aux groupes les plus aisés. De même, l'analyse économétrique spatiale vérifie que, quels que soient les groupes d'âge retenus, la variation régionale de la pauvreté durable est sans effet sur l'incidence du travail des enfants, contrairement à la pauvreté transitoire. De tels résultats doivent être rapprochés, d'une part, de l'augmentation de la pauvreté globale entre 1998 et 2003, accompagnée d'une légère baisse de la pauvreté durable, et d'une croissance sensible de la pauvreté transitoire, et, d'autre part, de la relation étroite qui prévaut entre la variation effective de la pauvreté transitoire, et le ralentissement du rythme du processus de redistribution, via les envois de fonds de Côte d'Ivoire. En même temps, ils questionnent l'opportunité d'une législation trop sévère à l'encontre du travail des enfants, en l'absence de mécanismes susceptibles de réduire les fluctuations des gains des ménages. Based on the two household surveys of 1998 and 2003, the study highlights the extend of child labour – 44,1 percent of the children of 5-14 years are « economically active » in 2003, a comparable ratio between the girls and the boys, except for the group of age of 10-14 years where the first are more occupied –, and examines the impact of poverty on this phenomenon. Two principal conclusions result from it. Firstly, the assumption of the « luxury axiom » seems relatively robust. A bivariate probit model shows that, all things being equal – in particular, while controlling by the fixed effects of the 45 provinces –, the proportion of the children of 5-14 years economically active is definitely higher in the « poor » households, compared to the « non-poor » households. At the same time, the monetary deprivations reduce the probability of schooling, and an opposite relation between the school attendance and the child participation to the labour market prevails. In the same way, a spatial econometric analysis in terms of space-time regimes, based on a spatial lag model inherent to the 45 provinces, shows that the regional poverty, apprehended by the FGT indices, affects positively the regional rate of participation of the children of 10-14 years to the labour market. A similar result prevails in 2003 for the children of 5-14 years, but the elasticities are a little higher. Secondly, the consideration of the vulnerability of the households, i.e. the risk of poverty, reinforces the argument of the « risk management »: child work can be the reflection of a strategy of the households to minimize the risk of interruption of the resources stream. The study shows that the variability of the standard of living, measured by the variance of the expenditure in terms of transient poverty, raises the probability of child work, while reducing the chances of schooling, compared to the households above the line of poverty, whereas the vulnerability of the poor families, ascribable to a chronic weakness of the expenditure – the durable poor –, does not affect the child work propensity, and, in certain cases, their schooling, compared to the richest groups. In the same way, the spatial econometric analysis confirms that, independently of the groups of age chosen, the regional variation of durable poverty is without effect on the incidence of child work, contrary to the transient poverty. Such results must be associated, on the one hand, to the increase of total poverty between 1998 and 2003, accompanied by a weak fall of durable poverty, and by a significant growth of transient poverty, and, on the other hand, to the close connection which prevails between the effective variation of transient poverty, and the deceleration of the rhythm of the process of redistribution, via the remittances of Côte d'Ivoire. At the same time, they question the opportunity of a too severe legislation against the child work, in the absence of mechanisms likely to reduce the fluctuations of the incomes of households. (Full text in French)

Download Info

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
File URL: http://ged.u-bordeaux4.fr/ceddt96.pdf
Download Restriction: no

Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Groupe d'Economie du Développement de l'Université Montesquieu Bordeaux IV in its series Documents de travail with number 96.

as in new window
Length: 32 pages
Date of creation: Apr 2004
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:mon:ceddtr:96

Contact details of provider:

Related research

Keywords:

Other versions of this item:

Find related papers by JEL classification:

References

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
as in new window
  1. Pushkar Maitra & Ranjan Ray, 2000. "The Joint Estimation of Child Participation in Schooling and Employment: Comparative Evidence from Three Continents," ASARC Working Papers 2000-04, The Australian National University, Australia South Asia Research Centre.
  2. Jean-Pierre Lachaud, 2005. "Crise ivoirienne, envois de fonds et pauvreté au Burkina Faso," Revue Tiers-Monde, Armand Colin, vol. 0(3), pages 651-673.
  3. Ravallion, Martin & Wodon, Quentin, 1999. "Does child labor displace schooling? - evidence on behavioral responses to an enrollment subsidy," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2116, The World Bank.
  4. Anselin, Luc & Bera, Anil K. & Florax, Raymond & Yoon, Mann J., 1996. "Simple diagnostic tests for spatial dependence," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 26(1), pages 77-104, February.
  5. Jensen, P. & Nielsen, H.S., 1996. "Child Labour or School Attendance? Evidence from Zambia," Papers 96-14, Centre for Labour Market and Social Research, Danmark-.
  6. Basu, Kaushik, 2002. "A note on multiple general equilibria with child labor," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 74(3), pages 301-308, February.
  7. Edmonds & Eric V., 2004. "Household composition and the response of child labor supply to product market integration: evidence from Vietnam," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3235, The World Bank.
  8. Basu, Kaushik & Van, Pham Hoang, 1998. "The Economics of Child Labor," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 88(3), pages 412-27, June.
  9. Duryea, Suzanne & Arends-Kuenning, Mary, 2003. "School Attendance, Child Labor and Local Labor Market Fluctuations in Urban Brazil," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 31(7), pages 1165-1178, July.
  10. Hideo Akabayashi & George Psacharopoulos, 1999. "The trade-off between child labour and human capital formation: A Tanzanian case study," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 35(5), pages 120-140.
  11. Ranjan Ray, 2000. "Analysis of child labour in Peru and Pakistan: A comparative study," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 13(1), pages 3-19.
  12. Blunch, Niels-Hugo & Verner, Dorte, 2000. "Revisiting the link between poverty and child labor - the Ghanaian experience," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2488, The World Bank.
  13. Nielsen, H.S., 1998. "Child Labor and School Attendance: Two Joint Decisions," Papers 98-15, Centre for Labour Market and Social Research, Danmark-.
  14. Kaushik Basu & Zafiris Tzannatos, 2003. "The Global Child Labor Problem: What Do We Know and What Can We Do?," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 17(2), pages 147-173, December.
  15. Anu Rammohan, 2000. "The Interaction of Child-labour and Schooling in Developing Countries: A Theoretical Perspective," Journal of Economic Development, Chung-Ang Unviersity, Department of Economics, vol. 25(2), pages 85-99, December.
  16. Rosenzweig, Mark R & Evenson, Robert E, 1977. "Fertility, Schooling, and the Economic Contribution of Children in Rural India: An Econometric Analysis," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 45(5), pages 1065-79, July.
  17. Patrick M. Emerson & Andre Portela Souza, 2002. "Is There a Child Labor Trap? Inter-Generational Persistence of Child Labor in Brazil," Vanderbilt University Department of Economics Working Papers 0214, Vanderbilt University Department of Economics.
  18. Tanaka, Ryuichi, 2003. "Inequality as a determinant of child labor," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 80(1), pages 93-97, July.
  19. Jean-Pierre Lachaud, 2003. "Dynamique de pauvreté, inégalité et urbanisation au Burkina Faso," Série de recherche 07, Groupe d'Economie du Développement de l'Université Montesquieu Bordeaux IV.
  20. Eric V. Edmonds, 2007. "Child Labor," NBER Working Papers 12926, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  21. Sonia Bhalotra, and Zafiris Tzannatos, 2003. "Child labor : what have we learnt?," Social Protection Discussion Papers 27872, The World Bank.
  22. Tzannatos, Zafiris, 2003. "Child labor and school enrollment in Thailand in the 1990s," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 22(5), pages 523-536, October.
  23. Canagarajah, Sudharshan & Coulombe, Harold, 1997. "Child labor and schooling in Ghana," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1844, The World Bank.
  24. Ranjan, Priya, 1999. "An economic analysis of child labor," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 64(1), pages 99-105, July.
  25. Jean-Pierre Lachaud, 2004. "Transferts privés de Côte d'Ivoire et pauvreté durable et transitoire au Burkina Faso : une analyse spatio-temporelle," Documents de travail 93, Groupe d'Economie du Développement de l'Université Montesquieu Bordeaux IV.
  26. Grootaert, Christiaan, 1998. "Child labor in Cote d'Ivoire: incidence and determinants," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1905, The World Bank.
  27. Basu, Kaushik, 1998. "Child labor : cause, consequence, and cure, with remarks on International Labor Standards," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2027, The World Bank.
  28. Gupta, Manash Ranjan, 2000. "Wage Determination of a Child Worker: A Theoretical Analysis," Review of Development Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 4(2), pages 219-28, June.
  29. George Psacharopoulos, 1997. "Child labor versus educational attainment Some evidence from Latin America," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 10(4), pages 377-386.
  30. Christopher Heady, 2000. "What is the Effect of Child Labour on Learning Achievement? Evidence from Ghana," Innocenti Working Papers inwopa00/7, UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre.
  31. Strauss, J. & Thomas, D., 1995. "Empirical Modeling of Household and Family Decisions," Papers 95-12, RAND - Reprint Series.
  32. Strauss, John & Thomas, Duncan, 1995. "Human resources: Empirical modeling of household and family decisions," Handbook of Development Economics, in: Hollis Chenery & T.N. Srinivasan (ed.), Handbook of Development Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 34, pages 1883-2023 Elsevier.
  33. Grootaert, Christiaan & Kanbur, Ravi, 1995. "Child labor : a review," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1454, The World Bank.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

Citations

Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
as in new window

Cited by:
  1. F. Blanco & M. G. Breglia & L. Guarcello & C. Valdivia, 2008. "Violence against children:preliminary evidence from Colombia, El Salvador, Cambodia and Ecuador," UCW Working Paper 41, Understanding Children's Work (UCW Programme).

Lists

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

Statistics

Access and download statistics

Corrections

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:mon:ceddtr:96. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: ().

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.