Are girls the fairer sex in India? Revisiting intra-household allocation of education expenditure
AbstractThis paper revisits the issue of the intra-household allocation of education expenditure with the recently available India Human Development Survey which refers to 2005 and covers both urban and rural areas. In addition to the traditional Engel method, the paper utilizes a Hurdle model to disentangle the decision to enroll (incur any educational expenditure) and the decision of how much to spend on education, conditional on enrolling. Finally the paper also uses household fixed effects to examine whether any gender bias is a within-household phenomenon. The paper finds that the traditional Engel method often fails to pick up gender bias where it exists not only because of the aggregation of data at the household-level but also because of aggregation of the two decisions in which gender can have opposite signs. It is found that pro-male gender bias exists in the primary school age group for several states but that the incidence of gender bias increases with age – it is greater in the middle school age group (10-14 years) and greater still in the secondary school age group (15-19 years). However, gender discrimination in the secondary school age group 15-19 takes place mainly through the decision to enroll boys and not girls, and not through differential expenditure on girls and boys. The results also suggest that the extent of pro-male gender bias in educational expenditure is substantially greater in rural than in urban areas. Finally, our results suggest that an important mechanism through which households spend less on girls than boys is by sending sons to fee-charging private schools and daughters to the fee-free government-funded schools.
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Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Centre for the Study of African Economies, University of Oxford in its series CSAE Working Paper Series with number 2011-10.
Date of creation: 2011
Date of revision:
Gender bias; educational expenditure; Engel curve; Hurdle model; India.;
Other versions of this item:
- Azam, Mehtabul & Kingdon, Geeta Gandhi, 2013. "Are Girls the Fairer Sex in India? Revisiting Intra-Household Allocation of Education Expenditure," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 42(C), pages 143-164.
- Mehtabul Azam & Geeta Kingdon, 2011. "Are girls the fairer sex in India? Revisiting intra-household allocation of education expenditure," DoQSS Working Papers 11-03, Department of Quantitative Social Science - Institute of Education, University of London.
- Mehtabul Azam and Geeta Gandhi Kingdon, 2011. "Are girls the fairer sex in India? Revisting intra-household allocation of education expenditure," Economics Series Working Papers WPS/2011-10, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
- Azam, Mehtabul & Kingdon, Geeta, 2011. "Are Girls the Fairer Sex in India? Revisiting Intra-Household Allocation of Education Expenditure," IZA Discussion Papers 5706, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- I21 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Analysis of Education
- J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
- J71 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Labor Discrimination - - - Hiring and Firing
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