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Where Has All the Bias Gone? Detecting Gender Bias in the Intrahousehold Allocation of Educational Expenditure

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  • Kingdon, Geeta Gandhi

Abstract

The reliability of the household consumption-based (Engel curve) methodology in detecting gender bias has been called into question because it has generally failed to confirm bias even where it exists. This article seeks to find explanations for this failure by exploiting a data set that has educational expenditure information at the individual level and also, by aggregation, at the household level. I find that, in the basic education age groups, the discriminatory mechanism in education is via differential enrollment rates for boys and girls. Education expenditure, conditional on enrollment, is equal for boys and girls. The Engel curve method fails for two reasons. First, it models a single equation for the two-stage process. Second, even when we make individual- and household-level expenditure equations as similar as possible, the household-level equation still fails to "pick up" gender bias in about one-third of the cases where the individual-level equation shows significant bias. This article concludes that only individual-based data can accurately capture the full extent of gender bias.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by University of Chicago Press in its journal Economic Development and Cultural Change.

Volume (Year): 53 (2005)
Issue (Month): 2 (January)
Pages: 409-51

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Handle: RePEc:ucp:ecdecc:y:2005:v:53:i:2:p:409-51

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Web page: http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/EDCC/

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Cited by:
  1. Dercon, Stefan & Singh, Abhijeet, 2013. "From Nutrition to Aspirations and Self-Efficacy: Gender Bias over Time among Children in Four Countries," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 45(C), pages 31-50.
  2. Richard Mussa, 2010. "Rural-Urban Differences in Parental Spending on Children’s Primary Education in Malawi," SALDRU Working Papers 49, Southern Africa Labour and Development Research Unit, University of Cape Town.
  3. Mehtabul Azam and Geeta Gandhi Kingdon, 2011. "Are girls the fairer sex in India? Revisting intra-household allocation of education expenditure," Economics Series Working Papers WPS/2011-10, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
  4. Seewanyana, Sarah & Kasirye, Ibrahim, 2010. "Gender differences in Uganda: the case for access to education and health services," Research Series 113612, Economic Policy Research Centre (EPRC).
  5. Thomas Masterson, 2008. "An Empirical Analysis of Gender Bias in Education Spending in Paraguay," Economics Working Paper Archive wp_550, Levy Economics Institute.
  6. Nhate, Virgulino & Ardnt, C. & van den Broeck, K., 2006. "Orphans and Discrimination in Mozambique: An Outlay Equivalence Analysis," 2006 Annual Meeting, August 12-18, 2006, Queensland, Australia 25373, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
  7. Mussa, Richard, 2009. "Household economic status, schooling costs, and schooling bias against non-biological children in Malawi," MPRA Paper 15855, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 21 Jun 2009.
  8. Hazarika, Gautam & Viren, Vejoya, 2013. "The effect of early childhood developmental program attendance on future school enrollment in rural North India," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 34(C), pages 146-161.
  9. Sylvestre Gaudin, 2011. "Son Preference in Indian Families: Absolute Versus Relative Wealth Effects," Demography, Springer, vol. 48(1), pages 343-370, February.
  10. Zimmermann, Laura, 2012. "Remember When It Rained: The Elusiveness of Gender Discrimination in Indian School Enrollment," IZA Discussion Papers 6833, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  11. Zimmermann, Laura, 2011. "Reconsidering Gender Bias in Intra-Household Allocation in India," IZA Discussion Papers 5687, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  12. Cristina Cattaneo, 2012. "Migrants’ international transfers and educational expenditure," The Economics of Transition, The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, vol. 20(1), pages 163-193, 01.

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