Where Has All the Bias Gone? Detecting Gender Bias in the Intrahousehold Allocation of Educational Expenditure
AbstractThe reliability of the household consumption-based (Engel curve) methodology in detecting gender bias has been called into question because it has generally failed to confirm bias even where it exists. This article seeks to find explanations for this failure by exploiting a data set that has educational expenditure information at the individual level and also, by aggregation, at the household level. I find that, in the basic education age groups, the discriminatory mechanism in education is via differential enrollment rates for boys and girls. Education expenditure, conditional on enrollment, is equal for boys and girls. The Engel curve method fails for two reasons. First, it models a single equation for the two-stage process. Second, even when we make individual- and household-level expenditure equations as similar as possible, the household-level equation still fails to "pick up" gender bias in about one-third of the cases where the individual-level equation shows significant bias. This article concludes that only individual-based data can accurately capture the full extent of gender bias.
Download InfoTo our knowledge, this item is not available for download. To find whether it is available, there are three options:
1. Check below under "Related research" whether another version of this item is available online.
2. Check on the provider's web page whether it is in fact available.
3. Perform a search for a similarly titled item that would be available.
Bibliographic InfoArticle provided by University of Chicago Press in its journal Economic Development and Cultural Change.
Volume (Year): 53 (2005)
Issue (Month): 2 (January)
Contact details of provider:
Web page: http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/EDCC/
You can help add them by filling out this form.
CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
- Seewanyana, Sarah & Kasirye, Ibrahim, 2010. "Gender differences in Uganda: the case for access to education and health services," Research Series 113612, Economic Policy Research Centre (EPRC).
- Nhate, Virgulino & Ardnt, C. & van den Broeck, K., 2006. "Orphans and Discrimination in Mozambique: An Outlay Equivalence Analysis," 2006 Annual Meeting, August 12-18, 2006, Queensland, Australia 25373, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
- Mehtabul Azam and Geeta Gandhi Kingdon, 2011.
"Are girls the fairer sex in India? Revisting intra-household allocation of education expenditure,"
Economics Series Working Papers
WPS/2011-10, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
- Azam, Mehtabul & Kingdon, Geeta Gandhi, 2013. "Are Girls the Fairer Sex in India? Revisiting Intra-Household Allocation of Education Expenditure," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 42(C), pages 143-164.
- Azam, Mehtabul & Kingdon, Geeta, 2011. "Are Girls the Fairer Sex in India? Revisiting Intra-Household Allocation of Education Expenditure," IZA Discussion Papers 5706, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Mehtabul Azam & Geeta Kingdon, 2011. "Are girls the fairer sex in India? Revisiting intra-household allocation of education expenditure," CSAE Working Paper Series 2011-10, Centre for the Study of African Economies, University of Oxford.
- Mehtabul Azam & Geeta Kingdon, 2011. "Are girls the fairer sex in India? Revisiting intra-household allocation of education expenditure," DoQSS Working Papers 11-03, Department of Quantitative Social Science - Institute of Education, University of London.
- Mussa, Richard, 2009.
"Rural-urban differences in parental spending on children's primary education in Malawi,"
16090, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Richard Mussa, 2010. "Rural-Urban Differences in Parental Spending on Children’s Primary Education in Malawi," SALDRU Working Papers 49, Southern Africa Labour and Development Research Unit, University of Cape Town.
- Masterson, Thomas, 2012.
"An Empirical Analysis of Gender Bias in Education Spending in Paraguay,"
Elsevier, vol. 40(3), pages 583-593.
- Thomas Masterson, 2008. "An Empirical Analysis of Gender Bias in Education Spending in Paraguay," Economics Working Paper Archive wp_550, Levy Economics Institute, The.
- Cristina Cattaneo, 2012. "Migrants’ international transfers and educational expenditure," The Economics of Transition, The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, vol. 20(1), pages 163-193, 01.
- Mussa, Richard, 2009.
"Household economic status, schooling costs, and schooling bias against non-biological children in Malawi,"
15855, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 21 Jun 2009.
- Richard Mussa, 2010. "Household Economic Status, Schooling Costs, and Schooling Bias Against Non-biological Children in Malawi," SALDRU Working Papers 48, Southern Africa Labour and Development Research Unit, University of Cape Town.
- Laura Zimmermann, 2012.
"Reconsidering Gender Bias in Intrahousehold Allocation in India,"
The Journal of Development Studies,
Taylor and Francis Journals, vol. 48(1), pages 151-163, September.
- Zimmermann, Laura, 2011. "Reconsidering Gender Bias in Intra-Household Allocation in India," IZA Discussion Papers 5687, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Zimmermann, Laura, 2012. "Remember When It Rained: The Elusiveness of Gender Discrimination in Indian School Enrollment," IZA Discussion Papers 6833, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Journals Division).
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.