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Where has all the bias gone? Detecting gender-bias in the household allocation of educational expenditure

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  • Geeta Kingdon

    (Centre for the Study of African Economies)

Abstract

The reliability of the household consumption based (Engel curve) methodology in detecting gender bias has been called into question because it has generally failed to confirm bias even where it exists. This paper seeks to find explanations for this failure by exploiting a dataset that has educational expenditure information at the individual level and also, by aggregation, at the household level. We find that in the basic education age groups, the discriminatory mechanism in education is via differential enrolment rates for boys and girls. Education expenditure conditional on enrolment is equal for boys and girls. The Engel curve method fails for two reasons. Firstly, it models a single equation for the two stage process. Second, even when we make individual and household level expenditure equations as similar as possible, the household level equation still fails to ‘pick up’ gender bias in about one third of the cases where the individual-level equation shows significant bias. The paper concludes that only individual based data can accurately capture the full extent of gender bias.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by EconWPA in its series Development and Comp Systems with number 0409037.

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Length: 43 pages
Date of creation: 23 Sep 2004
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Handle: RePEc:wpa:wuwpdc:0409037

Note: Type of Document - pdf; pages: 43
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Web page: http://128.118.178.162

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  1. Anne Case & Angus Deaton, 2002. "Consumption, health, gender and poverty," Working Papers, Princeton University, Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Center for Health and Wellbeing. 261, Princeton University, Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Center for Health and Wellbeing..
  2. Sonia Bhalotra & Cliff Attfield, 1998. "Intrahousehold resource allocation in rural Pakistan: a semi-parametric analysis," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library 6679, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
  3. Datt, Gaurav & Ravallion, Martin, 1998. "Why Have Some Indian States Done Better Than Others at Reducing Rural Poverty?," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 65(257), pages 17-38, February.
  4. Jere Behrman & Andrew D. Foster & Mark Rosenzweig & Prem Vahsishtha, 1997. "Women's Schooling, Home Teaching, and Economic Growth," Home Pages, University of Pennsylvania _071, University of Pennsylvania.
  5. Deaton, A. & Paxson, C., 1997. "Economies of Scale, Household Size, and the Demand for Food," Papers, Princeton, Woodrow Wilson School - Development Studies 178, Princeton, Woodrow Wilson School - Development Studies.
  6. Dreze, Jean & Kingdon, Geeta Gandhi, 2001. "School Participation in Rural India," Review of Development Economics, Wiley Blackwell, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 5(1), pages 1-24, February.
  7. Ahmad, A. & Morduch, J., 1993. "Identifying Sex Bias in the Allocation of Household Resources: Evidence from Linked Household Surveys from Bangladesh," Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research 1636, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
  8. Kingdon, Geeta, 1996. "The Quality and Efficiency of Private and Public Education: A Case-Study of Urban India," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 58(1), pages 57-82, February.
  9. Geeta Gandhi Kingdon & Jeemol Unni, 2001. "Education and Women's Labour Market Outcomes in India," Education Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 9(2), pages 173-195.
  10. Geoffrey Lancaster & Pushkar Maitra & Ranjan Ray, 2006. "Endogenous Intra-household Balance of Power and its Impact on Expenditure Patterns: Evidence from India," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 73(291), pages 435-460, 08.
  11. Geoffrey Lancaster & Pushkar Maitra & Ranjan Ray, 2008. "Household Expenditure Patterns and Gender Bias: Evidence from Selected Indian States," Oxford Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 36(2), pages 133-157.
  12. Geeta Gandhi Kingdon, 1998. "Does the labour market explain lower female schooling in India?," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 35(1), pages 39-65.
  13. Schultz, T.P., 1990. "Returns To Women'S Education," Papers, Yale - Economic Growth Center 603, Yale - Economic Growth Center.
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Cited by:
  1. Holger Strulik, 2013. "School Attendance And Child Labor—A Model Of Collective Behavior," Journal of the European Economic Association, European Economic Association, European Economic Association, vol. 11(2), pages 246-277, 04.
  2. Fafchamps, Marcel & Wahba, Jackline, 2006. "Child labor, urban proximity, and household composition," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 79(2), pages 374-397, April.
  3. Rozana Himaz, 2008. "Intrahousehold Allocation of Education Expenditure and Returns to Education: The Case of Sri Lanka," Economics Series Working Papers, University of Oxford, Department of Economics 393, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
  4. Rana Ejaz Ali Khan & Karamat Ali, 2005. "Bargaining Over Sons' and Daughters' Schooling-Probit Analysis of Household Behavior," HEW, EconWPA 0505002, EconWPA.

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