Are Girls the Fairer Sex in India? Revisiting Intra-Household Allocation of Education Expenditure
AbstractThis paper revisits the issue of the intra-household allocation of education expenditure with the recently available India Human Development Survey which refers to 2005 and covers both urban and rural areas. In addition to the traditional Engel method, the paper utilizes a Hurdle model to disentangle the decision to enroll (incur any educational expenditure) and the decision of how much to spend on education, conditional on enrolling. The paper finds that the traditional Engel method often fails to pick up gender bias where it exists not only because of the aggregation of data at the household-level but also because of aggregation of the two decisions in which gender can have opposite signs. There exists little evidence of gender bias in the primary school age group (age 5-9); however, pro-male bias in educational expenditure is observed in many Indian states in the age group 10-14. In contrast, gender discrimination in the secondary school age group 15-19 mainly takes place through the decision to enroll boys and not girls, and not through differential expenditure on girls and boys. Overall, the results reveal large regional disparities in the nature and existence of gender bias in education.
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Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) in its series IZA Discussion Papers with number 5706.
Length: 39 pages
Date of creation: May 2011
Date of revision:
Publication status: published in: World Development, 2013, 42, 143-164
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Other versions of this item:
- Azam, Mehtabul & Kingdon, Geeta Gandhi, 2013. "Are Girls the Fairer Sex in India? Revisiting Intra-Household Allocation of Education Expenditure," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 42(C), pages 143-164.
- Mehtabul Azam & Geeta Kingdon, 2011. "Are girls the fairer sex in India? Revisiting intra-household allocation of education expenditure," DoQSS Working Papers 11-03, Department of Quantitative Social Science - Institute of Education, University of London.
- Mehtabul Azam and Geeta Gandhi Kingdon, 2011. "Are girls the fairer sex in India? Revisting intra-household allocation of education expenditure," Economics Series Working Papers WPS/2011-10, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
- Mehtabul Azam & Geeta Kingdon, 2011. "Are girls the fairer sex in India? Revisiting intra-household allocation of education expenditure," CSAE Working Paper Series 2011-10, Centre for the Study of African Economies, University of Oxford.
- I21 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Analysis of Education
- J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
- J71 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Labor Discrimination - - - Hiring and Firing
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2011-05-30 (All new papers)
- NEP-DEV-2011-05-30 (Development)
- NEP-EDU-2011-05-30 (Education)
- NEP-LAB-2011-05-30 (Labour Economics)
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