Education Gender Gaps in Pakistan: Is the Labor Market to Blame?
AbstractDifferential labor market returns to male and female education are one potential explanation for large gender gaps in education in Pakistan. We empirically test this explanation by estimating private returns to education separately for male and female wage earners. This article contributes to the literature by using a variety of methodologies (ordinary least squares, Heckman correction, two-stage least squares, and household fixed effects) in order to estimate economic returns to education. The latest nationally representative data-the Pakistan Integrated Household Survey (2002)-are used. Earnings function estimates consistently reveal a sizable gender asymmetry in economic returns to education, with returns to women's education being substantially and statistically significantly higher than men's. The return to an additional year of schooling ranges between 7% and 11% for men and between 13% and 18% for women. There are also large, direct returns to women's education at low levels of schooling, and the education-earnings profile is more convex for women than for men. However, a decomposition of the gender wage gap (into the component "explained" by differing male and female endowments and the residual component) suggests that there is highly differentiated treatment by employers. We conclude that the total labor market returns are much higher for men, despite returns to education being higher for women. This suggests that parents may have an investment motive in allocating more resources to boys than to girls within households. (c) 2009 by The University of Chicago. All rights reserved..
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoArticle provided by University of Chicago Press in its journal Economic Development and Cultural Change.
Volume (Year): 57 (2009)
Issue (Month): 4 (07)
Contact details of provider:
Web page: http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/EDCC/
You can help add them by filling out this form.
CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
- Grace Lordan, 2011. "Unplanned Pregnancy & the Impact on Sibling Health Outcomes," Discussion Papers Series 419, School of Economics, University of Queensland, Australia.
- Monazza Aslam & Geeta Kingdon, 2007.
"What can Teachers do to Raise Pupil Achievement?,"
Economics Series Working Papers
WPS/2007-14, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
- Yamauchi, Futoshi & Liu, Yanyan, 2011. "Girls take over: Long-term impacts of an early stage education intervention in the Philippines," IFPRI discussion papers 1144, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
- Lodhi, Abdul Salam & Tsegai, Daniel W. & Gerber, Nicolas, 2011. "Determinants of participation in child’s education and alternative activities in Pakistan," Discussion Papers 119110, University of Bonn, Center for Development Research (ZEF).
- Yamauchi, Futoshi & Liu, Yanyan, 2012. "School quality, labor markets and human capital investments : long-term impacts of an early stage education intervention in the Philippines," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6247, The World Bank.
- Masooma Habib, 2013. "Education in Pakistan’s Punjab: Outcomes and Interventions," Lahore Journal of Economics, Department of Economics, The Lahore School of Economics, vol. 18(Special E), pages 21-48, September.
- Adeline Delavande & Basit Zafar, 2013. "Gender discrimination and social identity: experimental evidence from urban Pakistan," Staff Reports 593, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
- Monazza Aslam & Shenila Rawal, 2013. "Preparing Women of Substance? Education, Training, and Labor Market Outcomes for Women in Pakistan," Lahore Journal of Economics, Department of Economics, The Lahore School of Economics, vol. 18(Special E), pages 93-128, September.
- Eric Manes, 2009. "Pakistan's Investment Climate : Laying the Foundation for Growth, Volume 2. Annexes," World Bank Other Operational Studies 12411, The World Bank.
- Nadereh Chamlou & Silvia Muzi & Hanane Ahmed, 2011. "Understanding the Determinants of Female Labor Force Participation in the Middle East and North Africa Region: The Role of Education and Social Norms in Amman," Working Papers 31, AlmaLaurea Inter-University Consortium.
- Monasa Aslam & Geeta Kingdon, 2010.
"Parental Education and Child Health - Understanding the Pathways of Impact in Pakistan,"
Economics Series Working Papers
CSAE WPS/2010-16, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
- Aslam, Monazza & Kingdon, Geeta Gandhi, 2012. "Parental Education and Child Health—Understanding the Pathways of Impact in Pakistan," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 40(10), pages 2014-2032.
- Monazza Aslam & Geeta Kingdon, 2010. "Parental Education and Child Health - Understanding the Pathways of Impact in Pakistan," CSAE Working Paper Series 2010-16, Centre for the Study of African Economies, University of Oxford.
- Maertens, Annemie, 2013. "Social Norms and Aspirations: Age of Marriage and Education in Rural India," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 47(C), pages 1-15.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Journals Division).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.