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Reconsidering Gender Bias in Intrahousehold Allocation in India

  • Laura Zimmermann

Finding evidence of gender discrimination among children in the intrahousehold allocation of goods has often proven to be difficult. This article uses data on education expenditures in India to test whether data aggregation, data reliability and the statistical method used help explain this pattern. Results suggest that discrimination against girls is increasing in age and robust to the statistical method and the expenditure measure at the all-India level, although state-level results are more sensitive. I find that data aggregation and statistical method are important factors in detecting gender bias, while data reliability does not seem to play a major role.

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File URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10.1080/00220388.2011.629652
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Article provided by Taylor & Francis Journals in its journal Journal of Development Studies.

Volume (Year): 48 (2012)
Issue (Month): 1 (September)
Pages: 151-163

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Handle: RePEc:taf:jdevst:v:48:y:2012:i:1:p:151-163
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  1. Monazza Aslam & Geeta Kingdon, 2005. "Gender and Household Education Expenditure in Pakistan," Economics Series Working Papers GPRG-WPS-025, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
  2. Geeta Gandhi Kingdon, 2007. "The progress of school education in India," Economics Series Working Papers GPRG-WPS-071, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
  3. Morduch, J. & Stern, H.S., 1995. "Using Mixture Models to Detect Sex Bias in Health Outcomes in Bangladesh," Papers 513, Harvard - Institute for International Development.
  4. Sonia Bhalotra & Cliff Attfield, 1998. "Intrahousehold resource allocation in rural Pakistan: a semi-parametric analysis," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 6679, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
  5. Subramanian, S. & Deaton, A., 1990. "Gender Effects In Indian Consumption Patterns," Papers 147, Princeton, Woodrow Wilson School - Development Studies.
  6. Messer, Ellen, 1997. "Intra-household allocation of food and health care: Current findings and understandings--Introduction," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 44(11), pages 1675-1684, June.
  7. Kingdon, Geeta Gandhi, 2005. "Where Has All the Bias Gone? Detecting Gender Bias in the Intrahousehold Allocation of Educational Expenditure," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 53(2), pages 409-51, January.
  8. Gibson, John & Rozelle, Scott, 2000. "Is It Better To Be A Boy? A Disaggregated Outlay Equivalent Analysis Of Gender Bias In Papua New Guinea," Working Papers 11990, University of California, Davis, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics.
  9. Gong, Xiaodong & van Soest, Arthur & Zhang, Ping, 2000. "Sexual Bias and Household Consumption: A Semiparametric Analysis of Engel Curves in Rural China," IZA Discussion Papers 212, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  10. Rozana Himaz, 2008. "Intrahousehold Allocation of Education Expenditure and Returns to Education: The Case of Sri Lanka," Economics Series Working Papers 393, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
  11. John Gibson, 1997. "Testing for boy-girl discrimination with household expenditure data: results for Papua New Guinea," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 4(10), pages 643-646.
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