# Springer

# Psychometrika

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### 1974, Volume 39, Issue 4

**469-490 Single subject incomplete designs for nonmetric multidimensional scaling***by*Ian Spence & Dennis Domoney**491-499 Estimation of reliability and true score variance from a split of a test into three arbitrary parts***by*Walter Kristof**501-516 Alternative methods of constructing strict weak orders from interval orders***by*Peter Fishburn & William Gehrlein**517-520 A note on Freeman's measure of association for relating an ordered to an unordered factor***by*Lawrence Hubert**521-523 Comment on ‘the estimation of proportions in m groups’***by*Tom Leonard

### 1974, Volume 39, Issue 3

**283-309 Some applications of graph theory to clustering***by*Lawrence Hubert**311-318 A simple test for heterogeneity of variance in complex factorial designs***by*John Overall & J. Arthur Woodward**319-326 A confirmatory analysis of the factor stability hypothesis***by*Harold Bechtoldt**327-350 Probabilistic, multidimensional unfolding analysis***by*Joseph Zinnes & Richard Griggs**351-358 The relative efficiency of two tests as a function of ability level***by*Frederic Lord**359-360 Applications of projective transformations to test theory***by*J. Keats**361-362 The additive difference model and a metric and an ordering on sets***by*Johannes Becker & Werner Pipahl**363-363 Testing that K independent random samples were drawn from K normal populations***by*Kenneth Levy**365-367 An alternative method of fitting a model of individual differences in multidimensional scaling***by*Bruce Bloxom

### 1974, Volume 39, Issue 2

**123-157 A nonmetric variety of linear factor analysis***by*Joseph Kruskal & Roger Shepard**159-163 On browne's solution for oblique procrustes rotation***by*Elliot Cramer**165-187 A comparative study of association measures***by*Carl Särndal**189-201 Testing pattern hypotheses for covariance matrices***by*R. McDonald**203-222 The measurement of factor indeterminacy***by*Roderick McDonald**223-245 Models for the analysis of alternative sources of growth in correlated stochastic variables***by*Carl Frederiksen**247-264 Estimation of latent ability and item parameters when there are omitted responses***by*Frederic Lord**265-265 Taxonomy Project***by*Brian Bolton**267-268 On random rankings studies in nonmetric scaling***by*Ian Spence**269-274 Reviews***by*Lee Cooper & John Gaito

### 1974, Volume 39, Issue 1

**1-2 Stanley Smith Stevens 1906–1973***by*Eugene Galanter**3-22 Statistical methods for absorbing Markov-chain models for learning: Estimation and identification***by*Peter Polson & David Huizinga**23-29 On accuracy in reliability estimation***by*Walter Kristof**31-36 An index of factorial simplicity***by*Henry Kaiser**37-51 Functionplane—A new approach to simple structure rotation***by*Jeffrey Katz & F. Rohlf**53-68 Comparing regressions when measurement error variances are known***by*T. Stroud**69-90 The effects of random error and subsampling of dimensions on recovery of configurations by non-metric multidimensional scaling***by*Harvey Cohen & Lawrence Jones**91-109 On the determination of appropriate dimensionality in data with error***by*Paul Isaac & David Poor**111-121 Normal ogive model on the continuous response level in the multidimensional latent space***by*Fumiko Samejima

### 1973, Volume 38, Issue 4

**437-457 Word and image: Sources of the verbal and spatial factors in mental test scores***by*R. Bock**459-472 On the construction of weak orders from fragmentary information***by*Peter Fishburn**473-493 Estimating the weights for multiple attributes in a composite criterion using pairwise judgments***by*V. Srinivasan & Allan Shocker**495-511 Determining parameter values in the generalized image system***by*Raymond Koopman**513-532 The effect of number of categories in rating scales on precision of estimation of scale values***by*J. Ramsay**533-554 Empirical bayes point estimates of latent trait scores without knowledge of the trait distribution***by*William Meredith & Jack Kearns**555-569 Metric unfolding: Data requirement for unique solution & clarification of Schönemann's algorithm***by*E. Gold**571-580 A note on Lawley's formulas for standard errors in maximum likelihood factor analysis***by*Robert Jennrich & Dorothy Thayer**581-592 Standard errors for rotated factor loadings***by*Claude Archer & Robert Jennrich**593-604 Standard errors for obliquely rotated factor loadings***by*Robert Jennrich**607-608 Concerning Monte Carlo evaluations of nonmetric multidimensional scaling algorithms***by*Phipps Arabie**609-609 Three comments on oblimax***by*Henry Kaiser**611-613 Note on the influence of an exceptional subject***by*Neil Broekmann**615-616 Reviews***by*Jack Kavanagh

### 1973, Volume 38, Issue 3

**291-304 On linear combinations of binary item scores***by*T. Krishnan**305-336 A geometrical analysis of the unfolding model: General solutions***by*John Davidson**337-369 Linear programming techniques for multidimensional analysis of preferences***by*V. Srinivasan & Allan Shocker**371-374 The guttman-harris uniqueness estimates***by*Edward Meyer**375-378 On the relationship between ratio of number of variables to number of factors and factorial determinacy***by*Edward Meyer**379-392 Nonlinear submodels of orthogonal linear models***by*Gordon Bechtel**393-410 Improving the metric quality of questionnaire data***by*Terry Gleason & Richard Staelin**411-427 Measures of reliability for profiles and test batteries***by*Anthony Conger & Raanan Lipshitz**429-432 Reviews***by*Anatol Rapoport & Stanley Piwowarski

### 1973, Volume 38, Issue 2

**151-172 Prediction in future samples studied in terms of the gain from selection***by*Alan Gross**173-181 Maximizing the coefficient of generalizability in multi-facet decision studies***by*J. Woodward & George Joe**183-201 The estimation of true score variance and error variance in the classical test theory model***by*Paul Jackson**203-219 Homogeneous case of the continuous response model***by*Fumiko Samejima**221-233 A comment on Birnbaum's three-parameter logistic model in the latent trait theory***by*Fumiko Samejima**235-248 Probabilistic unfolding***by*Friedrich Sixtl**249-258 A rank test for two group concordance***by*W. Schucany & W. Frawley**259-268 On the numerical approximation of the bivariate normal (tetrachoric) correlation coefficient***by*David Kirk**269-284 Estimation ofJ scales for unidimensional unfolding***by*Thomas Hettmansperger & Hoben Thomas**285-289 Minutes of the 1973 annual business meeting of the Psychometric Society***by*W. Schrader

### 1973, Volume 38, Issue 1

**1-10 A reliability coefficient for maximum likelihood factor analysis***by*Ledyard Tucker & Charles Lewis**11-18 Pairwise nonmetric multidimensional scaling***by*Richard Johnson**19-46 The estimation of proportions inm groups***by*Melvin Novick & Charles Lewis & Paul Jackson**47-62 Monotone invariant clustering procedures***by*Lawrence Hubert**63-72 Min and max hierarchical clustering using asymmetric similarity measures***by*Lawrence Hubert**73-75 A note onH=log 2 m***by*J. Jaap Tuinman**77-86 A test of inclusion which allows for errors of measurement***by*Richard White & R. Clark**87-100 Comments on the “lens model” equation and the analysis of multiple-cue judgment tasks***by*N. Castellan**101-111 Testing a linear relation between true scores of two measures***by*Walter Kristof**113-122 Subjective geographic distance: A multidimensional comparison***by*Ulf Lundberg & Gösta Ekman**123-140 A goodness of fit test for the rasch model***by*Erling Andersen**141-143 A note on a sufficiency condition for uniqueness of a restricted factor matrix***by*James Dunn**145-147 Reviews***by*Emil Posavac & Bert Green**149-149 The minimum average correlation between equivalent sets of uncorrelated factors***by*Peter Schönemann

### 1972, Volume 37, Issue 4

**357-375 Beyond structure: In search of functional models of psychological process***by*Samuel Messick**377-384 On a statistic arising in testing correlation***by*Walter Kristof**385-415 Interactive scaling with individual subjects***by*Forrest Young & Norman Cliff**417-423 The relation between hierarchical and euclidean models for psychological distances***by*Eric Holman**425-440 Alternative approaches to factorial invariance***by*Bruce Bloxom**441-451 An algebraic solution for a class of subjective metrics models***by*Peter Schönemann**453-459 Presolution performance functions for markov models***by*Peter Polson**461-486 A monte carlo evaluation of three nonmetric multidimensional scaling algorithms***by*Ian Spence**487-490 Reviews***by*Daniel Stufflebeam & Samuel Mayo

### 1972, Volume 37, Issue 3

**239-240 Rerbert S. Conrad***by*Edith Huddleston**243-260 Factor analysis by generalized least squares***by*Karl Jöreskog & Arthur Goldberger**261-274 Some extensions of Johnson's hierarchical clustering algorithms***by*Lawrence Hubert**275-309 An individual difference model for the multidimensional analysis of preference data***by*Peter Schönemann & Ming Wang**311-322 A new solution to the additive constant problem in metric multidimensional scaling***by*Lee Cooper**323-355 Nonmetric multidimensional scaling: A monte carlo study of the basic parameters***by*Charles Sherman

### 1972, Volume 37, Issue 2

**115-117 Sir Cyril Burt (1883–1971)***by*Arthur Jensen**119-136 The simplex in pair comparisons***by*Bruce Bloxom**137-141 Departures from binomial assumptions in short-term memory models***by*William Grams & Gerald Belle**143-148 Obtaining squared multiple correlations from a correlation matrix which may be singular***by*Ledyard Tucker & Lee Cooper & William Meredith**149-166 On sensitive rank tests for comparing the effects of two treatments on a single group***by*Hans Ury**167-177 The asymptotic distribution of response probabilities in the Audley-Jonckheere learning model***by*David Wolter & Robert Earl**179-186 The implications of convergent and discriminant validity data for instrument validation***by*Merton Krause**187-191 Note on the “longitudinal factor analysis” model***by*John Nesselroade**193-216 A geometrical analysis of the unfolding model: Nondegenerate solutions***by*J. Davidson**217-236 Reviews***by*J. Torcivia & Allen Shub & G. Raleigh Pegram & Warren Findley & David Weiss

### 1972, Volume 37, Issue 1

**1-2 Gösta Ekman (1920–1971)***by*Lyle Jones**3-27 Relations between multidimensional scaling and three-mode factor analysis***by*Ledyard Tucker**29-51 Estimating item parameters and latent ability when responses are scored in two or more nominal categories***by*R. Darrell Bock**53-59 Local dependence latent structure models***by*Dean Harper**61-91 Some new results on factor indeterminacy***by*Peter Schönemann & Ming-Mei Wang**93-97 The occurrence of an increase in correlation by restriction of range***by*Joseph Levin**99-101 A note on McDonald's generalization of principal components analysis***by*Lester Shine**103-106 The fisher-yates exact test and unequal sample sizes***by*Edgar Johnson**107-114 Reviews***by*Robert Thorndike & David Messick & Arthur Riopells

### 1971, Volume 36, Issue 4

**329-347 Measurement as structural theory***by*Louis Guttman**349-367 Some models for individual-group comparisons and group behavior***by*Stephen Fienberg & F. Larntz**369-388 A scalar product model for the multidimensional scaling of choice***by*Gordon Bechtel & Ledyard Tucker & Wei-Ching Chang**389-408 Matrix analysis of identifiability of some finite markov models***by*James Greeno & Richard Millward & Coleman Merryman**409-426 Simultaneous factor analysis in several populations***by*K. Jöreskog**427-436 Relations of factor score estimates to their use***by*Ledyard Tucker**437-442 Reviews***by*Charles Noty & Samuel Mayo & Elliot Cramer

### 1971, Volume 36, Issue 3

**207-225 On the theory of a set of tests which differ only in length***by*Walter Kristof**227-242 A theoretical study of two-stage testing***by*Frederic Lord**243-249 Comparison of ranks of cross-product and covariance solutions in component analysis***by*M. Corballis**251-252 A normal approximation for testing the equality of two independent Chi-square variables***by*Ralph D'Agostino & Bernard Rosman**253-259 On the polychoric series method for estimation of ρ in contingency tables***by*M. Hamdan**261-288 Bayesian inference and the classical test theory model: Reliability and true scores***by*Melvin Novick & Paul Jackson & Dorothy Thayer**289-302 Stochastic processes and the guttman simplex***by*Guy Groen**303-316 Sequential decision making: An aggregate scheduling methodology***by*Ronald Ebert**317-328 Reviews***by*William Mehrens & John Boulger & Roy Freedle

### 1971, Volume 36, Issue 2

**83-107 Econometrics and psychometrics: A survey of communalities***by*Arthur Goldberger**109-133 Statistical analysis of sets of congeneric tests***by*K. Jöreskog**135-154 A dual scaling analysis for paired compositions***by*Gordon Bechtel**155-163 Maximum likelihood solution to factor analysis when some factors are completely specified***by*Friedrich Gebhardt**165-174 A comparison of computer routines for the calculation of the tetrachoric correlation coefficient***by*Ernest Froemel**175-193 A comparative evaluation of several prominent methods of oblique factor transformation***by*A. Ralph Hakstian**195-203 Some boundary conditions for a monotone analysis of symmetric matrices***by*James Lingoes**204-204 A review***by*Nancy Wiggins

### 1971, Volume 36, Issue 1

**1-19 Bias and runs in dice throwing and recording: A few million throws***by*Gudmund Iversen & Willard Longcor & Frederick Mosteller & John Gilbert & Cleo Youtz**21-30 The minimum average correlation between equivalent sets of uncorrelated factors***by*Peter Schönemann**31-34 The effect of unequal group size on Tukey's HSD procedure***by*Robert Smith**35-55 A covariance analysis of multiple paired comparisons***by*Gordon Bechtel**57-62 Monotone regression: Continuity and differentiability properties***by*J. Kruskal**63-70 A note on some equations of confirmatory factor analysis***by*Stanley Mulaik**71-78 A posterior region for parallel profile differentials***by*Seymour Geisser & Russell Kappenman**79-81 Book review***by*A. Riopelle & E. Menzel

### 1970, Volume 35, Issue 4

**401-415 A second generation little jiffy***by*Henry Kaiser**417-437 The estimation of variance-covariance and correlation matrices from incomplete data***by*Neil Timm**439-454 Determination of joint distributions from marginal distributions in dichotomous systems***by*N. Castellan**455-473 Nonmetric multidimensional scaling: Recovery of metric information***by*Forrest Young**475-491 Multidimensional analysis of complex structure: Mixtures of class and quantitative variation***by*Richard Degerman**493-505 A general approach to procrustes pattern rotation***by*Gunnar Gruvaeus**507-511 Reviews***by*Emil Heermann & Lee Cronbach**513-515 Minutes of the 1970 annual business meeting of the Psychometric Society***by*W. Schrader

### 1970, Volume 35, Issue 3

**283-319 Analysis of individual differences in multidimensional scaling via an n-way generalization of “Eckart-Young” decomposition***by*J. Carroll & Jih-Jie Chang**321-332 A general rotation criterion and its use in orthogonal rotation***by*Charles Crawford & George Ferguson**333-347 Maximizing the validity of a unit-weight composite as a function of relative component lengths with a fixed total testing time***by*Paul Jackson & Melvin Novick**349-366 On metric multidimensional unfolding***by*Peter Schönemann**367-392 The analysis of categorizing behavior***by*Glen Evans**393-394 Some comments on an item analysis procedure***by*Frank Baker & John Gurland**395-398 Reviews***by*Norman Cliff & Allen Shub**399-399 Simple reaction time with markovian evolution of gaussian discriminal processes***by*Phillip Emerson

### 1970, Volume 35, Issue 2

**143-162 Estimating the reliability of interview data***by*Joseph Fleiss**163-178 The relation between sample and population characteristic vectors***by*Norman Cliff**179-197 Fitting a response model forn dichotomously scored items***by*R. Darrell Bock & Marcus Lieberman**199-227 A “halo”-model for multidimensional ratio scaling***by*H. Micko**229-235 Orthogonal rotation algorithms***by*Robert Jennrich**237-243 Extensions of the significance test for one-parameter signal detection hypotheses***by*Leonard Marascuilo**245-255 Fitting one matrix to another under choice of a central dilation and a rigid motion***by*Peter Schönemann & Robert Carroll**257-271 A comparison of three predictor selection techniques in multiple regression***by*Robert McCornack**273-282 Reviews***by*John Horn & Bert Green & J. Carroll & Kenneth Hopkins & James Collins

### 1970, Volume 35, Issue 1

**1-21 Fitting a simplex symmetrically***by*Peter Schönemann**23-42 A set theoretic analysis of group interactions***by*Kenneth Mackenzie**43-50 Item characteristic curves estimated without knowledge of their mathematical form—a confrontation of Birnbaum's logistic model***by*Frederic Lord**51-72 Statistical methods for a general theory of all-or-none learning***by*Peter Polson**73-78 A probabilistic formulation and statistical analysis of guttman scaling***by*C. Proctor**79-98 Longitudinal factor analysis***by*M. Corballis & R. Traub**99-109 Simple reaction time with markovian evolution of gaussian discriminal processes***by*Phillip Emerson**111-128 Three common factor models for groups of variables***by*Roderick McDonald**129-138 Reviews***by*Oscar Kempthorne & Jerome Cornfield & Daniel Norton**139-139 Estimation of latent ability using a response pattern of graded scores***by*Fumiko Samejima

### 1969, Volume 34, Issue 4

**407-420 Retrospective anticipation***by*Harry Harman**421-459 Evaluation of factor analytic research procedures by means of simulated correlation matrices***by*Ledyard Tucker & Raymond Koopman & Robert Linn**461-487 An analysis of some conditions for representingN state Markov processes as general all or none models***by*Theodore Steiner & James Greeno**489-507 Estimation of true score and error variance for tests under various equivalence assumptions***by*Walter Kristof**509-518 Control charts for sequential testing***by*H. Levitt & M. Treisman**519-520 Review***by*John Noak**521-523 Minutes of the 1969 annual business meeting of the Psychometric Society***by*W. Schrader

### 1969, Volume 34, Issue 3

**259-299 Estimating true-score distributions in psychological testing (an empirical bayes estimation problem)***by*Frederic Lord**301-318 Best linear composites with a specified structure***by*Bert Green**319-330 A monte carlo investigation of the statistical significance of Kruskal's nonmetric scaling procedure***by*David Klahr**331-333 Testing significance of differences between two chi-squares***by*Dennis Knepp & Doris Entwisle**335-345 More on least squares estimation of the transition matrix in a stationary first-order markov process from sample proportions data***by*Timothy McGuire**347-361 Univariate selection: The effects of size of correlation, degree of skew, and degree of restriction***by*James Brewer & John Hills**363-373 A test of the hypothesis that cronbach's alpha or kuder-richardson coefficent twenty is the same for two tests***by*Leonard Feldt**375-394 Fitting the factor analysis model***by*Michael Browne**395-405 Reviews***by*Esther Diamond & William Crano & Louis Guttman & Ronald Ragsdale

### 1969, Volume 34, Issue 2

**139-165 Multidimensional scaling: Combining observations when individuals have different perceptual structures***by*C. Horan**167-182 Some statistical considerations in multidimensional scaling***by*J. Ramsay**183-202 A general approach to confirmatory maximum likelihood factor analysis***by*K. Jöreskog