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Taxation and unemployment: an applied general equilibrium approach for Germany


  • Boeters, Stefan
  • Böhringer, Christoph
  • Feil, Michael


This paper presents an applied general equilibrium model for Germany. The model integrates specific labour market institutions in an otherwise standard general equilibrium framework. There are sectoral wage negotiations for two skill types of workers between firms and trade unions. The bargaining setup is sensitive to the specific conditions of the respective sector (profits, output and labour demand elasticities, bargaining power) and generates wages that reflect empirical wage differentials across sectors. The model is used to simulate the labour market effects of changes in the taxation of labour: marginal and average wage tax, and social security contributions.

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  • Boeters, Stefan & Böhringer, Christoph & Feil, Michael, 2002. "Taxation and unemployment: an applied general equilibrium approach for Germany," ZEW Discussion Papers 02-39, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  • Handle: RePEc:zbw:zewdip:859

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Bovenberg, A. Lans & Graafland, Johan J. & de Mooij, Ruud A., 2000. "Tax reform and the Dutch labor market: an applied general equilibrium approach," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 78(1-2), pages 193-214, October.
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    12. Böhringer, Christoph & Ruocco, Anna & Wiegard, Wolfgang, 2001. "Energy taxes and employment: a do-it-yourself simulation model," ZEW Discussion Papers 01-21, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
    13. Clemens Fuest & Bernd Huber, 2001. "Tax Progression and Human Capital in Imperfect Labour Markets," German Economic Review, Verein für Socialpolitik, vol. 2(1), pages 1-18, February.
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    Cited by:

    1. Stefan Boeters & Michael Feil, 2009. "Heterogeneous Labour Markets in a Microsimulation–AGE Model: Application to Welfare Reform in Germany," Computational Economics, Springer;Society for Computational Economics, vol. 33(4), pages 305-335, May.
    2. Peter B. Dixon & Martin Johnson & Maureen T. Rimmer, 2008. "Reducing Illegal Migrants in the U.S.: A Dynamic CGE Analysis," Centre of Policy Studies/IMPACT Centre Working Papers g-183, Victoria University, Centre of Policy Studies/IMPACT Centre.
    3. Stefan Boeters & Luc Savard, 2011. "The Labour Market in CGE Models," Cahiers de recherche 11-20, Departement d'Economique de l'École de gestion à l'Université de Sherbrooke.
    4. Peter B. Dixon & Maureen T. Rimmer, 2005. "The Displacement Effect of Labour-Market Programs: Estimates from the MONASH Model," Centre of Policy Studies/IMPACT Centre Working Papers g-154, Victoria University, Centre of Policy Studies/IMPACT Centre.
    5. Arntz, Melanie & Boeters, Stefan & Gurtzgen, Nicole, 2006. "Alternative approaches to discrete working time choice in an AGE framework," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 23(6), pages 1008-1032, December.
    6. Arntz, Melanie & Boeters, Stefan & Gürtzgen, Nicole & Schubert, Stefanie, 2008. "Analysing welfare reform in a microsimulation-AGE model: The value of disaggregation," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 25(3), pages 422-439, May.
    7. Bjornstad, Roger & Skjerpen, Terje, 2006. "Trade and inequality in wages and unemployment," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 23(1), pages 20-44, January.
    8. Stefan Boeters, 2013. "Optimal Tax Progressivity in Unionised Labour Markets: Simulation Results for Germany," Computational Economics, Springer;Society for Computational Economics, vol. 41(4), pages 447-474, April.
    9. Denise VAN REGEMORTER & Bert SAVEYN, "undated". "Environmental Policy in a Federal State: A Regional CGE Analysis of the NEC Directive in Belgium," Regional and Urban Modeling 284100045, EcoMod.
    10. Peichl, Andreas, 2005. "Die Evaluation von Steuerreformen durch Simulationsmodelle," FiFo Discussion Papers - Finanzwissenschaftliche Diskussionsbeiträge 05-1, University of Cologne, FiFo Institute for Public Economics.
    11. Stefan Boeters & Michael Feil & Nicole Gürtzgen, 2007. "Discrete Working Time Choice in an Applied General Equilibrium Model," Computational Economics, Springer;Society for Computational Economics, vol. 29(3), pages 427-427, May.
    12. Stefan Boeters & Christoph Bohringer & Thiess Buttner & Margit Kraus, 2010. "Economic effects of VAT reforms in Germany," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 42(17), pages 2165-2182.
    13. Stefan Boeters & Reinhold Schnabel & Nicole Gürtzgen, 2006. "Reforming Social Welfare in Germany: An Applied General Equilibrium Analysis," German Economic Review, Verein für Socialpolitik, vol. 7, pages 363-388, November.
    14. Peter B. Dixon & Maureen T. Rimmer, 2010. "Simulating the U.S. Recession with and without the Obama package: the role of excess capacity," Centre of Policy Studies/IMPACT Centre Working Papers g-193, Victoria University, Centre of Policy Studies/IMPACT Centre.
    15. Melanie Arntz & Stefan Boeters & Nicole Gürtzgen & Stefanie Schubert, 2006. "Analysing Welfare Reform in a Microsimulation-AGE Model," Computing in Economics and Finance 2006 109, Society for Computational Economics.
    16. Marit Hinnosaar, 2004. "Estonian labor market institutions within a general equilibrium framework," Bank of Estonia Working Papers 2004-5, Bank of Estonia, revised 13 Oct 2004.
    17. Marit Hinnosaar, 2004. "The Impact Of Benefit And Tax Reforms On Estonian Labor Market In A General Equilibrium Framework," University of Tartu - Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Working Paper Series 31, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, University of Tartu (Estonia).

    More about this item


    applied general equilibrium; Germany; labour market; trade unions; wage bargaining; tax policy; tax progression; labour mobility;

    JEL classification:

    • D58 - Microeconomics - - General Equilibrium and Disequilibrium - - - Computable and Other Applied General Equilibrium Models
    • E62 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Macroeconomic Policy, Macroeconomic Aspects of Public Finance, and General Outlook - - - Fiscal Policy
    • J60 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers - - - General


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