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Negotiating Environmental Agreements under Ratification Uncertainty

  • Köke, Sonja
  • Lange, Andreas

In this paper we analyze how rati cation uncertainty impacts the optimal terms of international environmental agreements (IEAs). We relax the frequent assumption of countries as unitary actors by modeling the rati cation stage through uncertain preferences of a ratifying agent (e.g. the pivotal voter). With this, we combine the literature on IEAs with the one on two-level games of rati cation. We nd that rati cation uncertainty reduces both the strength of the commitment as well as the participation threshold, thereby a ecting intensive as well as extensive margins of expected international cooperation. Similar comparative statics arise under uncertainty when pivotal voters' and negotiators' preferences diverge. This is a rst step towards linking individual voters' preferences to the outcome of IEAs.

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Paper provided by Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association in its series Annual Conference 2013 (Duesseldorf): Competition Policy and Regulation in a Global Economic Order with number 79952.

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Date of creation: 2013
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Handle: RePEc:zbw:vfsc13:79952
Contact details of provider: Web page: http://www.socialpolitik.org/
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  1. Charles D. Kolstad, 2011. "Public Goods Agreements with Other-Regarding Preferences," NBER Working Papers 17017, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. Carlo Carraro & Johan Eyckmans & Michael Finus, 2006. "Optimal transfers and participation decisions in international environmental agreements," The Review of International Organizations, Springer, vol. 1(4), pages 379-396, December.
  3. Putnam, Robert D., 1988. "Diplomacy and domestic politics: the logic of two-level games," International Organization, Cambridge University Press, vol. 42(03), pages 427-460, June.
  4. Andreas Lange, 2006. "The Impact of Equity-preferences on the Stability of International Environmental Agreements," Environmental & Resource Economics, European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 34(2), pages 247-267, 06.
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  9. Carraro, Carlo & Marchiori, Carmen & Oreffice, Sonia, 2004. "Endogenous Minimum Participation in International Environmental Treaties," CEPR Discussion Papers 4281, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  10. Ulph, A. & Maddison, D., 1995. "Uncertainty, learning and international environmental policy co-ordination," Discussion Paper Series In Economics And Econometrics 9507, Economics Division, School of Social Sciences, University of Southampton.
  11. Hans-Peter Weikard & Leo Wangler & Andreas Freytag, 2009. "Minimum Participation Rules with Heterogeneous Countries," Jena Economic Research Papers 2009-077, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Max-Planck-Institute of Economics.
  12. Urs Steiner Brandt, 2003. "Unilateral Actions the Case of International Environmental Problems," Working Papers 40/03, University of Southern Denmark, Department of Environmental and Business Economics.
  13. Iida, Keisuke, 1996. " Involuntary Defection in Two-Level Games," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 89(3-4), pages 283-303, December.
  14. Wagner, Ulrich J, 2001. " The Design of Stable International Environmental Agreements: Economic Theory and Political Economy," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 15(3), pages 377-411, July.
  15. Lange, Andreas & Vogt, Carsten, 2003. "Cooperation in international environmental negotiations due to a preference for equity," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 87(9-10), pages 2049-2067, September.
  16. Baker, Erin, 2005. "Uncertainty and learning in a strategic environment: global climate change," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(1), pages 19-40, January.
  17. Hoel, M., 1989. "Global Environmental Problems: The Effects Of Unilateral Actions Taken By One Country," Memorandum 11/1989, Oslo University, Department of Economics.
  18. Barrett, Scott, 1997. "The strategy of trade sanctions in international environmental agreements," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 19(4), pages 345-361, November.
  19. Rosendorff, B.P. & Milner, H., 1995. "Democratic Politics and International Trade Negociations: Elections and Divided Government as Constraints on Trade Liberalization," Papers 9511, Southern California - Department of Economics.
  20. Carraro, Carlo & Siniscalco, Domenico, 1991. "Strategies for the International Protection of the Environment," CEPR Discussion Papers 568, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
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