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Negotiating Environmental Agreements under Ratification Uncertainty

  • Köke, Sonja
  • Lange, Andreas

In this paper we analyze how rati cation uncertainty impacts the optimal terms of international environmental agreements (IEAs). We relax the frequent assumption of countries as unitary actors by modeling the rati cation stage through uncertain preferences of a ratifying agent (e.g. the pivotal voter). With this, we combine the literature on IEAs with the one on two-level games of rati cation. We nd that rati cation uncertainty reduces both the strength of the commitment as well as the participation threshold, thereby a ecting intensive as well as extensive margins of expected international cooperation. Similar comparative statics arise under uncertainty when pivotal voters' and negotiators' preferences diverge. This is a rst step towards linking individual voters' preferences to the outcome of IEAs.

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Paper provided by Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association in its series Annual Conference 2013 (Duesseldorf): Competition Policy and Regulation in a Global Economic Order with number 79952.

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Date of creation: 2013
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Handle: RePEc:zbw:vfsc13:79952
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  1. Carraro, Carlo & Eyckmans, Johan & Finus, Michael, 2005. "Optimal Transfers and Participation Decisions in International Environmental Agreements," CEPR Discussion Papers 5046, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
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  8. Andreas Lange, 2006. "The Impact of Equity-preferences on the Stability of International Environmental Agreements," Environmental & Resource Economics, European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 34(2), pages 247-267, 06.
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  13. Hans-Peter Weikard & Leo Wangler & Andreas Freytag, 2009. "Minimum Participation Rules with Heterogeneous Countries," Jena Economic Research Papers 2009-077, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Max-Planck-Institute of Economics.
  14. Baker, Erin, 2005. "Uncertainty and learning in a strategic environment: global climate change," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(1), pages 19-40, January.
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  16. Putnam, Robert D., 1988. "Diplomacy and domestic politics: the logic of two-level games," International Organization, Cambridge University Press, vol. 42(03), pages 427-460, June.
  17. Macartan Humphreys, 2007. "Strategic ratification," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 132(1), pages 191-208, July.
  18. Michael Hoel & Kerstin Schneider, 1997. "Incentives to participate in an international environmental agreement," Environmental & Resource Economics, European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 9(2), pages 153-170, March.
  19. Alistair Ulph & David Maddison, 1997. "Uncertainty, learning and international environmental policy coordination," Environmental & Resource Economics, European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 9(4), pages 451-466, June.
  20. Iida, Keisuke, 1996. " Involuntary Defection in Two-Level Games," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 89(3-4), pages 283-303, December.
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