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Better schools for Europe


  • Gundlach, Erich
  • Wößmann, Ludger


We try to identify which economic factors might be responsible for the large international differences in student performance. We present time series evidence for a number of European countries which suggests that rising educational expenditures obviously did not improve student performance. This finding is largely in line with the international literature on the (in)effectiveness of schooling expenditures and implies that schooling is often provided inefficiently in Europe. Therefore, we speculate that a reform of the institutions which govern the incentives within European schooling systems may be needed to achieve improved student performance.

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  • Gundlach, Erich & Wößmann, Ludger, 2001. "Better schools for Europe," Open Access Publications from Kiel Institute for the World Economy 2639, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW).
  • Handle: RePEc:zbw:ifwkie:2639

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Caroline M. Hoxby, 2000. "The Effects of Class Size on Student Achievement: New Evidence from Population Variation," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 115(4), pages 1239-1285.
    2. James Heckman, 2011. "Policies to foster human capital," Educational Studies, Higher School of Economics, issue 3, pages 73-137.
    3. Caroline Minter Hoxby, 1996. "How Teachers' Unions Affect Education Production," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 111(3), pages 671-718.
    4. Gundlach, Erich & Wossmann, Ludger & Gmelin, Jens, 2001. "The Decline of Schooling Productivity in OECD Countries," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 111(471), pages 135-147, May.
    5. Bishop, J., 1997. "The Effect of national Standards and Curriculum-Based Exams on Achievement," Papers 97-01, Cornell - Center for Advanced Human Resource Studies.
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    Cited by:

    1. Pugno, Maurizio, 2006. "The service paradox and endogenous economic growth," Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, Elsevier, vol. 17(1), pages 99-115, January.
    2. Nick Adnett & Peter Davies, 2005. "Competition between or within schools? Re-assessing school choice," Education Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 13(1), pages 109-121.

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