IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/zbw/glodps/473.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Teacher Labor Markets in Developing Countries

Author

Listed:
  • Crawfurd, Lee
  • Pugatch, Todd

Abstract

The types of workers recruited into teaching and their allocation across classrooms can greatly influence a country’s stock of human capital. This paper considers how markets and non-market institutions determine the quantity, wages, skills, and spatial distribution of teachers in developing countries. Schools are a major source of employment in developing countries, particularly for women and professionals. Teacher compensation is also a large share of public budgets. Teacher labor markets in developing countries are likely to grow further as teacher quality becomes a greater focus of education policy, including under the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. Theoretical approaches to teacher labor markets have emphasized the role of non-market institutions, such as government and unions, and other frictions in teacher employment and wages. The evidence supports the existence and importance of such frictions in how teacher labor markets function. In many countries, large gaps in pay and quality exist between teachers and other professionals; teachers in public and private schools; teachers on permanent and temporary contracts; and teachers in urban and rural areas. Teacher supply increases with wages, though teacher quality does not necessarily increase. However, most evidence comes from studies of short-term effects among existing teachers. Evidence on effects in the long-term, on the supply of new teachers, or on changes in non-pecuniary compensation is scarcer.

Suggested Citation

  • Crawfurd, Lee & Pugatch, Todd, 2020. "Teacher Labor Markets in Developing Countries," GLO Discussion Paper Series 473, Global Labor Organization (GLO).
  • Handle: RePEc:zbw:glodps:473
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://www.econstor.eu/bitstream/10419/213877/1/GLO-DP-0473.pdf
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Chin, Aimee, 2005. "Can redistributing teachers across schools raise educational attainment? Evidence from Operation Blackboard in India," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 78(2), pages 384-405, December.
    2. Cruz-Aguayo, Yyannú & Ibarrarán, Pablo & Schady, Norbert, 2017. "Do tests applied to teachers predict their effectiveness?," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 159(C), pages 108-111.
    3. Nazmul Chaudhury & Jeffrey Hammer & Michael Kremer & Karthik Muralidharan & F. Halsey Rogers, 2006. "Missing in Action: Teacher and Health Worker Absence in Developing Countries," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 20(1), pages 91-116, Winter.
    4. Barbara Bruns & Javier Luque, 2014. "Great Teachers : How to Raise Student Learning in Latin America and the Caribbean--Overview," World Bank Publications - Reports 19507, The World Bank Group.
    5. Jere R. Behrman & Michela M. Tincani & Petra E. Todd & Kenneth I. Wolpin, 2016. "Teacher Quality in Public and Private Schools under a Voucher System: The Case of Chile," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 34(2), pages 319-362.
    6. Juan F. Castro & Bruno Esposito, 2017. "The Effect of Teacher Bonuses on Learning Outcomes and the Distribution of Teacher Skill: Evidence from Rural Schools in Peru," Working Papers 2017-104, Peruvian Economic Association.
    7. Lee Crawfurd, 2017. "School Management and Public–Private Partnerships in Uganda," Journal of African Economies, Centre for the Study of African Economies (CSAE), vol. 26(5), pages 539-560.
    8. Sonja Fagernäs & Panu Pelkonen, 2012. "Preferences and skills of Indian public sector teachers," IZA Journal of Labor & Development, Springer;Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit GmbH (IZA), vol. 1(1), pages 1-31, December.
    9. Peter Dolton & Oscar Marcenaro Gutierrez, 2011. "Teachers' Pay and Pupil Performance," CentrePiece - The magazine for economic performance 352, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
    10. Simon Appleton & W. John Morgan & Amanda Sives, 2006. "Should teachers stay at home? The impact of international teacher mobility," Journal of International Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 18(6), pages 771-786.
    11. Bold, Tessa & Kimenyi, Mwangi & Mwabu, Germano & Ng’ang’a, Alice & Sandefur, Justin, 2018. "Experimental evidence on scaling up education reforms in Kenya," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 168(C), pages 1-20.
    12. Ricardo Estrada, 2019. "Rules versus Discretion in Public Service: Teacher Hiring in Mexico," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 37(2), pages 545-579.
    13. Tessa Bold & Deon Filmer & Gayle Martin & Ezequiel Molina & Brian Stacy & Christophe Rockmore & Jakob Svensson & Waly Wane, 2017. "Enrollment without Learning: Teacher Effort, Knowledge, and Skill in Primary Schools in Africa," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 31(4), pages 185-204, Fall.
    14. repec:hrv:faseco:30749606 is not listed on IDEAS
    15. Asadullah, Mohammad Niaz, 2006. "Pay differences between teachers and other occupations: Some empirical evidence from Bangladesh," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 17(6), pages 1044-1065, December.
    16. Natalie Bau & Jishnu Das, 2020. "Teacher Value Added in a Low-Income Country," American Economic Journal: Economic Policy, American Economic Association, vol. 12(1), pages 62-96, February.
    17. Grieve Chelwa & Miquel Pellicer & Mashekwa Maboshe, 2019. "Teacher Pay and Educational Outcomes: Evidence from the Rural Hardship Allowance in Zambia," South African Journal of Economics, Economic Society of South Africa, vol. 87(3), pages 255-282, September.
    18. Araujo P., Maria Daniela, 2019. "Measuring the effect of competitive teacher recruitment on student achievement: Evidence from Ecuador," BERG Working Paper Series 150, Bamberg University, Bamberg Economic Research Group.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Chudgar, Amita & Sakamoto, Jutaro, 2021. "Similar work, different pay? Private school teacher working conditions in India," International Journal of Educational Development, Elsevier, vol. 86(C).
    2. Dai, Fengyan & Xu, Lei & Zhu, Yu, 2022. "Higher education expansion and supply of teachers in China," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 71(C).

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Matteo Bobba & Tim Ederer & Gianmarco Leon-Ciliotta & Christopher Neilson & Marco G. Nieddu, 2021. "Teacher Compensation and Structural Inequality: Evidence from Centralized Teacher School Choice in Peru," NBER Working Papers 29068, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    2. Ricardo Estrada & María Lombardi, 2020. "Skills and Selection into Teaching: Evidence from Latin America," Department of Economics Working Papers wp_gob_2020_10, Universidad Torcuato Di Tella.
    3. Bold, Tessa & Kimenyi, Mwangi & Mwabu, Germano & Ng’ang’a, Alice & Sandefur, Justin, 2018. "Experimental evidence on scaling up education reforms in Kenya," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 168(C), pages 1-20.
    4. Eduard Marinov, 2019. "The 2019 Nobel Prize in Economics," Economic Thought journal, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences - Economic Research Institute, issue 6, pages 78-116.
    5. Clare Leaver & Owen Ozier & Pieter Serneels & Andrew Zeitlin, 2021. "Recruitment, Effort, and Retention Effects of Performance Contracts for Civil Servants: Experimental Evidence from Rwandan Primary Schools," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 111(7), pages 2213-2246, July.
    6. Aymo Brunetti & Konstantin Büchel & Martina Jakob & Ben Jann & Christoph Kühnhanss & Daniel Steffen, 2020. "Teacher Content Knowledge in Developing Countries: Evidence from a Math Assessment in El Salvador," University of Bern Social Sciences Working Papers 34, University of Bern, Department of Social Sciences.
    7. Torsten Figueiredo Walter, 2020. "Misallocation in the Public Sector? Cross-Country Evidence from Two Million Primary Schools," STICERD - Economic Organisation and Public Policy Discussion Papers Series 70, Suntory and Toyota International Centres for Economics and Related Disciplines, LSE.
    8. Committee, Nobel Prize, 2019. "Understanding development and poverty alleviation," Nobel Prize in Economics documents 2019-2, Nobel Prize Committee.
    9. Eble, Alex & Frost, Chris & Camara, Alpha & Bouy, Baboucarr & Bah, Momodou & Sivaraman, Maitri & Hsieh, Pei-Tseng Jenny & Jayanty, Chitra & Brady, Tony & Gawron, Piotr & Vansteelandt, Stijn & Boone, P, 2021. "How much can we remedy very low learning levels in rural parts of low-income countries? Impact and generalizability of a multi-pronged para-teacher intervention from a cluster-randomized trial in the ," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 148(C).
    10. Christopher Neilson & Sebastian Gallegos & Franco Calle, 2019. "Screening and Recruiting Talent At Teacher Colleges Using Pre-College Academic Achievement," Working Papers 636, Princeton University, Department of Economics, Industrial Relations Section..
    11. Andrew Zeitlin, 2020. "Teacher turnover in Rwanda," Papers 2009.13091, arXiv.org.
    12. Lay, Jann, 2010. "MDG Achievements, Determinants, and Resource Needs: What Has Been Learnt?," GIGA Working Papers 137, GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies.
    13. Bellés Obrero, Cristina & Lombardi, María, 2019. "Teacher Performance Pay and Student Learning: Evidence from a Nationwide Program in Peru," IZA Discussion Papers 12600, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    14. Aymo Brunetti & Konstantin Büchel & Martina Jakob & Ben Jann & Daniel Steffen, 2021. "Inadequate Teacher Content Knowledge and What to Do About It: Evidence from El Salvador," University of Bern Social Sciences Working Papers 41, University of Bern, Department of Social Sciences.
    15. Karthik Muralidharan & Venkatesh Sundararaman, 2013. "Contract Teachers: Experimental Evidence from India," NBER Working Papers 19440, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    16. Maruyama, Takao & Kurosaki, Takashi, 2021. "Do remedial activities using math workbooks improve student learning? Empirical evidence from scaled-up interventions in Niger," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 148(C).
    17. Rakshit, Sonali & Sahoo, Soham, 2020. "Biased Teachers and Gender Gap in Learning Outcomes: Evidence from India," GLO Discussion Paper Series 684, Global Labor Organization (GLO).
    18. Nadir Altinok & Manos Antoninis & Phu Nguyen-Van, 2017. "Smarter Teachers, Smarter Pupils? Some New Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa," Working Papers of BETA 2017-35, Bureau d'Economie Théorique et Appliquée, UDS, Strasbourg.
    19. Escribano, Rosario & Treviño, Ernesto & Nussbaum, Miguel & Torres Irribarra, David & Carrasco, Diego, 2020. "How much does the quality of teaching vary at under-performing schools? Evidence from classroom observations in Chile," International Journal of Educational Development, Elsevier, vol. 72(C).
    20. Nicholas Barton & Tessa Bold & Justin Sandefur, 2017. "Measuring Rents from Public Employment: Regression Discontinuity Evidence from Kenya - Working Paper 457," Working Papers 457, Center for Global Development.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • J44 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Particular Labor Markets - - - Professional Labor Markets and Occupations
    • J45 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Particular Labor Markets - - - Public Sector Labor Markets
    • J31 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - Wage Level and Structure; Wage Differentials
    • J21 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Labor Force and Employment, Size, and Structure
    • J23 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Labor Demand
    • I28 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Government Policy

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:zbw:glodps:473. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/glabode.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: ZBW - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/glabode.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.