Money Demand in EU Countries: A Survey
Money demand is probably one of the most extensively studied economic relationship in applied economics. While useful surveys of existing literature are available, much of the attention has focused on the US. However, a considerable number of papers have recently been produced dealing with the situation in the EU, both at a country and at an area- wide level, with much of this research being carried out at EU central banks. Therefore, it appears useful to also examine this recent work, both in order to assess the current situation, and to guide future research. The first part of the paper covers a range of general issues arising such as the theoretical models, the specifications, the variables employed, and estimation techniques that have been used. It is emphasised that the basis of all these papers appears to be a benchmark model, in which money is a function of a scale variable, of interest rates and, when necessary, of variables accounting for financial innovation. The second part of the paper focuses on the estimated equations for the individual countries, paying particular attention to the case of Germany. A reasonable summary of the results obtained in general is that money demand equations perform fairly well in EU countries. Estimated parameters have the signs, if not always the magnitudes, predicted by economic theory. In most cases, the evidence points to the existence of the long-run equilibrium relation between money and a few determinant variables (real income, prices and interest rates) although the size of the adjustment coefficients indicate that deviations from the steady state may be of long duration. The next section provides a review of empirical evidence of aggregate money demand in grouping of EU countries taken together, an area in which interest is increasing as EMU approaches. In this strand of the literature, there seems to be a consensus that EU-wide equations yield satisfactory results, with area-wide equations often performing better than comparable national equations. Some reasons underlying this result are also examined.
|Date of creation:||07 Mar 2005|
|Note:||Type of Document - pdf; pages: 36. European Monetary Institute Staff Paper #7|
|Contact details of provider:|| Web page: http://econwpa.repec.org|
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Breedon, F J & Fisher, P G, 1996.
"M0: Causes and Consequences,"
The Manchester School of Economic & Social Studies,
University of Manchester, vol. 64(4), pages 371-387, December.
- Francis Breedon & Paul Fisher, 1993. "M0: Causes and Consequences," Bank of England working papers 20, Bank of England.
- Merton H. Miller & Daniel Orr, 1966. "A Model of the Demand for Money by Firms," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 80(3), pages 413-435.
- Ireland, Peter N, 1995. "Endogenous Financial Innovation and the Demand for Money," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 27(1), pages 107-123, February.
- Peter N. Ireland, 1992. "Endogenous financial innovation and the demand for money," Working Paper 92-03, Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond.
- Martin Falk & Norbert Funke, 1995. "The stability of money demand in Germany and in the EMS: Impact of German unification," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 131(3), pages 470-488, September.
- Peter C. B. Phillips & Bruce E. Hansen, 1990. "Statistical Inference in Instrumental Variables Regression with I(1) Processes," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 57(1), pages 99-125.
- Jürgen Wolters & Timo Teräsvirta & Helmut Lütkepohl, 1998. "Modeling The Demand For M3 In The Unified Germany," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 80(3), pages 399-409, August.
- Wolters, Jürgen & Teräsvirta, Timo & Lütkepohl, Helmut, 1996. "Modelling the Demand for M3 in the unified Germany," SSE/EFI Working Paper Series in Economics and Finance 113, Stockholm School of Economics.
- J. Wolters & T. Teräsvirta & H. Lütkepohl, 1996. "Modelling the Demand for M3 in the Unified Germany," SFB 373 Discussion Papers 1996,24, Humboldt University of Berlin, Interdisciplinary Research Project 373: Quantification and Simulation of Economic Processes.
- Hagen, Jurgen Von & Neumann, Manfred J. M., 1988. "Instability versus dynamics: A study in West German demand for money," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 10(3), pages 327-349.
- von Hagen,Juergen & Neumann,Manfred, 1986. "Instability versus dynamics: A study in West German demand for money," Discussion Paper Serie A 44, University of Bonn, Germany.
- Ignazio Angeloni & Aviram Levy & Carlo Cottarelli, 1991. "Cross-Border Deposits and Monetary Aggregates in the Transition to EMU," IMF Working Papers 91/114, International Monetary Fund.
- Angeloni, I. & Cottarelli, C. & Levy, A., 1992. "Cross-Border Deposits and Monetary Aggregates in the Transition to EMU," Papers 163, Banca Italia - Servizio di Studi.
- repec:syd:wpaper:160 is not listed on IDEAS
- Rotemberg, Julio J & Driscoll, John C & Poterba, James M, 1995. "Money, Output, and Prices: Evidence from a New Monetary Aggregate," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 13(1), pages 67-83, January.
- Rotemberg, J.J. & Driscoll, J.C. & Poterba, J.M., 1991. "Money, Output, and Prices: Evidence from a New Monetary Aggregate," Working papers 585, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Economics.
- Julio J. Rotemberg & John C. Driscoll & James M. Poterba, 1991. "Money, Output and Prices: Evidence from A New Monetary Aggregate," NBER Working Papers 3824, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Stefan Gerlach, 1994. "German unification and the demand for German M3," BIS Working Papers 21, Bank for International Settlements.
- Antti Ripatti, 1998. "Stability of the demand for M1 and harmonized M3 in Finland," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 23(3), pages 317-337.
- Ripatti, Antti, 1996. "Stability of the demand for M1 and harmonized M3 in Finland," Research Discussion Papers 18/1996, Bank of Finland.
- Johansen, Soren, 1992. "Cointegration in partial systems and the efficiency of single-equation analysis," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 52(3), pages 389-402, June.
- Feldstein, Martin & Stock, James H., 1996. "Measuring money growth when financial markets are changing," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 37(1), pages 3-27, February.
- James H. Stock & Martin Feldstein, 1994. "Measuring Money Growth When Financial Markets Are Changing," NBER Working Papers 4888, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Paul Fisher & Suzanne Hudson & Mahmood Pradhan, 1993. "Divisia Indices for Money: An Appraisal of Theory and Practice," Bank of England working papers 9, Bank of England.
- Hendry, David F. & Ericsson, Neil R., 1991. "Modeling the demand for narrow money in the United Kingdom and the United States," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 35(4), pages 833-881, May.
- David F. Hendry & Neil R. Ericsson, 1990. "Modeling the demand for narrow money in the United Kingdom and the United States," International Finance Discussion Papers 383, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
- Barnett, William A., 1980. "Economic monetary aggregates an application of index number and aggregation theory," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 14(1), pages 11-48, September.
- Philippe Jeanfils, 1994. "Agrégats monétaires, cointégration et stabilité: le cas belge," Brussels Economic Review, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles, vol. 142, pages 153-201.
- David Barr, 1992. "The Demand for Money in Europe: Comment on Kremers and Lane," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 39(3), pages 718-729, September.
- Katrin Wesche, 1997. "The Stability of European Money Demand: An Investigation of M3H," Open Economies Review, Springer, vol. 8(4), pages 371-391, October.
- Wesche, Katrin, 1995. "The Stability of European Money Demand: An Investigation of M3H," Discussion Paper Serie B 337, University of Bonn, Germany.
- Karl-Heinz Tödter & Hans-Eggert Reimers, 1994. "P-Star as a link between money and prices in Germany," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 130(2), pages 273-289, June.
- Artis, Michael J, 1992. "Monetary Policy in Stage Two of EMU: What Can We Learn From the 1980s?," CEPR Discussion Papers 629, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Chow, Gregory C, 1993. "A Two-Step Procedure for Estimating Linear Simultaneous Equations with Unit Roots," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 75(1), pages 107-111, February.
- Paul Fisher & Juna Vega, 1993. "An Empirical Analysis of M4 in the United Kingdom," Bank of England working papers 21, Bank of England.
- Engle, Robert & Granger, Clive, 2015. "Co-integration and error correction: Representation, estimation, and testing," Applied Econometrics, Publishing House "SINERGIA PRESS", vol. 39(3), pages 106-135.
- Engle, Robert F & Granger, Clive W J, 1987. "Co-integration and Error Correction: Representation, Estimation, and Testing," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 55(2), pages 251-276, March.
- Banerjee, Anindya & Dolado, Juan J. & Galbraith, John W. & Hendry, David, 1993. "Co-integration, Error Correction, and the Econometric Analysis of Non-Stationary Data," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780198288107.
- James M. Boughton, 1991. "Long-Run Money Demand in Large Industrial Countries," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 38(1), pages 1-32, March.
- Monticelli, Carlo & Strauss-Kahn, Marc-Olivier, 1993. "European Integration and the Demand for Broad Money," The Manchester School of Economic & Social Studies, University of Manchester, vol. 61(4), pages 345-366, December.
- Carlo Monticelli & Marc-Olivier Strauss-Kahn, 1992. "European integration and the demand for broad money," BIS Working Papers 18, Bank for International Settlements.
- Angelini, P. & Hendry, D.F. & Rinaldi, R., 1993. "An Econometric Analysis of Money Demand in Italy," Papers 219, Banca Italia - Servizio di Studi.
- Gerdesmeier, Dieter, 1996. "The role of wealth in money demand," Discussion Paper Series 1: Economic Studies 1996,05e, Deutsche Bundesbank, Research Centre.
- Jeroen J. M. Kremers & Timothy D. Lane, 1990. "Economic and Monetary Integration and the Aggregate Demand for Money in the EMS," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 37(4), pages 777-805, December.
- Wesche, Katrin, 1994. "Aggregierte Geldnachfrage in Europa. Eine empirische Untersuchung der Geldmenge M1," Discussion Paper Serie B 269, University of Bonn, Germany.
- Jérôme Henry & Jens Weidmann, 1995. "German Unification and Asymmetry in the ERM: Comment on Gardner and Perraudin," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 42(4), pages 894-902, December.
- Paul R Masson & Marcel Cassard & Timothy D. Lane, 1994. "ERM Money Supplies and the Transition to EMU," IMF Working Papers 94/1, International Monetary Fund.
- Johansen, Soren, 1991. "Estimation and Hypothesis Testing of Cointegration Vectors in Gaussian Vector Autoregressive Models," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 59(6), pages 1551-1580, November.
- Hoffman, Dennis L. & Rasche, Robert H. & Tieslau, Margie A., 1995. "The stability of long-run money demand in five industrial countries," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 35(2), pages 317-339, April.
- Muscatelli, Vito Antonio & Papi, Luca, 1990. "Cointegration, Financial Innovation and Modelling the Demand for Money in Italy," The Manchester School of Economic & Social Studies, University of Manchester, vol. 58(3), pages 242-259, September.
- Ivo Arnold, 1994. "The myth of a stable European money demand," Open Economies Review, Springer, vol. 5(3), pages 249-259, July.
- Eduard J. Bomhoff, 1991. "Stability of Velocity in the Major Industrial Countries: A Kalman Filter Approach," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 38(3), pages 626-642, September.
- den Butter, F. A. G. & Fase, M. M. G., 1981. "The demand for money in EEC countries," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 8(2), pages 201-230. Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wpa:wuwpma:0503004. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (EconWPA)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.