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Multilateral Aggregation-Theoretic Monetary Aggregation over Heterogeneous Countries

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  • William A. Barnett

    (University of Kansas)

Abstract

We derive fundamental new theory for measuring monetary service flows aggregated over countries within a multicountry economic union. We develop three increasingly restrictive approaches: (1) the heterogeneous agents approach, (2) the multilateral representative agent approach, and (3) the unilateral representative agent approach. Our heterogeneous agents approach contains our multilateral representative agent approach as a special case. These results are being used by the European Central Bank in the construction of its Divisia monetary aggregates database, with convergence from the most general to the more restrictive approaches expected as economic convergence within the euro area proceeds. Our theory is equally as relevant to other economic unions, with or without a common currency. We use a stochastic approach to aggregation across countries over heterogeneous representative agents. Our theory permits monitoring the effects of policy at the aggregate level over a multicountry economic union, while also monitoring the distribution effects of policy among the countries of the multicountry area. The resulting index number theory assures internal consistency of the data construction methodology with the theory used in applications of the data in modeling and policy.

Suggested Citation

  • William A. Barnett, 2004. "Multilateral Aggregation-Theoretic Monetary Aggregation over Heterogeneous Countries," Macroeconomics 0412009, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:wpa:wuwpma:0412009
    Note: Type of Document - pdf; pages: 30. This paper is forthcoming in the J. of Econometrics. The longer working paper, of which this paper is a subset, is available as an ECB working paper on their site as ECB Working Paper 260.
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. William A. Barnett & Shu Wu, 2011. "On User Costs of Risky Monetary Assets," World Scientific Book Chapters, in: Financial Aggregation And Index Number Theory, volume 2, chapter 3, pages 85-105, World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    2. William Barnett & Apostolos Serletis & W. Erwin Diewert, 2005. "The Theory of Monetary Aggregation (book front matter)," Macroeconomics 0511008, University Library of Munich, Germany.
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    5. Katrin Wesche, 1997. "The demand for divisia money in a core monetary union," Review, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, issue Sep, pages 51-60.
    6. Stracca, Livio, 2001. "Does liquidity matter? Properties of a synthetic divisia monetary aggregate in the euro area," Working Paper Series 79, European Central Bank.
    7. Reimers, Hans-Eggert, 2002. "Analysing Divisia Aggregates for the Euro Area," Discussion Paper Series 1: Economic Studies 2002,13, Deutsche Bundesbank.
    8. William Barnett, 2005. "Monetary Aggregation," Macroeconomics 0503017, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    9. Barnett, William A., 1980. "Economic monetary aggregates an application of index number and aggregation theory," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 14(1), pages 11-48, September.
    10. Drake, L. & Mullineux, A., 1995. "One Divisa Money for Europe?," Discussion Papers 95-04, Department of Economics, University of Birmingham.
    11. William A. Barnett, 2003. "Aggregation-Theoretic Monetary Aggregation over the Euro Area, when Countries are Heterogeneous," Macroeconomics 0309018, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    12. W. Erwin Diewert, 2002. "Harmonized Indexes of Consumer Prices: Their Conceptual Foundations," Swiss Journal of Economics and Statistics (SJES), Swiss Society of Economics and Statistics (SSES), vol. 138(IV), pages 547-637, December.
    13. Beyer, Andreas & Doornik, Jurgen A & Hendry, David F, 2001. "Constructing Historical Euro-Zone Data," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 111(469), pages 102-121, February.
    14. Spencer, Peter, 1997. "Monetary integration and currency substitution in the EMS: The case for a European monetary aggregate," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 41(7), pages 1403-1419, July.
    15. William A. Barnett, 1979. "Theoretical Foundations for the Rotterdam Model," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 46(1), pages 109-130.
    16. Barnett, William A., 1978. "The user cost of money," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 1(2), pages 145-149.
    17. Leigh Drake & Andy Mullineux & Juda Agung, 1997. "One Divisia money for Europe?," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 29(6), pages 775-786.
    18. Barnett, William A, 1979. "The Joint Allocation of Leisure and Goods Expenditure," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 47(3), pages 539-563, May.
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    Cited by:

    1. Ryadh M. Alkhareif & William Barnett, 2012. "Divisia Monetary Aggregates for the GCC Countries," WORKING PAPERS SERIES IN THEORETICAL AND APPLIED ECONOMICS 201209, University of Kansas, Department of Economics, revised Aug 2012.
    2. William A. Barnett & Marcelle Chauvet & Heather L. R. Tierney, 2011. "Measurement Error in Monetary Aggregates: A Markov Switching Factor Approach," World Scientific Book Chapters, in: Financial Aggregation And Index Number Theory, volume 2, chapter 7, pages 207-249, World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    3. Gangopadhyay, Partha, 2020. "A new & simple model of currency crisis: Bifurcations and the emergence of a bad equilibrium," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 538(C).
    4. El-Shagi, Makram & Kelly, Logan, 2019. "What can we learn from country-level liquidity in the EMU?," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 42(C), pages 75-83.
    5. Barnett, William A. & Wang, Chan & Wang, Xue & Wu, Liyuan, 2019. "What inflation measure should a currency union target?," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 59(C), pages 123-139.
    6. William A. Barnett & Neepa B. Gaekwad, 2018. "The Demand for Money for EMU: a Flexible Functional Form Approach," Open Economies Review, Springer, vol. 29(2), pages 353-371, April.
    7. Richard G. Anderson & Barry E. Jones, 2011. "A comprehensive revision of the U.S. monetary services (divisia) indexes," Review, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, vol. 93(Sep), pages 325-360.
    8. James J. Heckman & Apostolos Serletis, "undated". "Introduction to Internally Consistent Modeling, Aggregation, Inference, and Policy," Working Papers 2014-73, Department of Economics, University of Calgary, revised 29 Sep 2014.
    9. William A Barnett & Unja Chae & John W Keating, 2012. "Forecast Design In Monetary Capital Stock Measurement," Global Journal of Economics (GJE), World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., vol. 1(01), pages 1-53.
    10. Darvas, Zsolt, 2015. "Does money matter in the euro area? Evidence from a new Divisia index," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 133(C), pages 123-126.
    11. William A. Barnett & Marcelle Chauvet, 2011. "International Financial Aggregation and Index Number Theory: A Chronological Half-Century Empirical Overview," World Scientific Book Chapters, in: Financial Aggregation And Index Number Theory, volume 2, chapter 1, pages 1-51, World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    12. Brill, Maximilian & Nautz, Dieter & Sieckmann, Lea, 2019. "Divisia monetary aggregates for a heterogeneous euro area," Discussion Papers 2019/9, Free University Berlin, School of Business & Economics.
    13. Barnett, William A. & Chauvet, Marcelle, 2011. "How better monetary statistics could have signaled the financial crisis," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 161(1), pages 6-23, March.
    14. Chen, Huayi & Zhou, P., 2019. "Modeling systematic technology adoption: Can one calibrated representative agent represent heterogeneous agents?," Omega, Elsevier, vol. 89(C), pages 257-270.
    15. Serletis, Apostolos & Xu, Libo, 2020. "Functional monetary aggregates, monetary policy, and business cycles," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 121(C).
    16. Barnett, William A. & Chauvet, Marcelle, 2008. "The End of the Great Moderation: “We told you so.”," MPRA Paper 11642, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    17. Calza, Alessandro & Zaghini, Andrea, 2009. "Nonlinearities In The Dynamics Of The Euro Area Demand For M1," Macroeconomic Dynamics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 13(1), pages 1-19, February.
    18. Israr Ahmad Shah Hashmi & Arshad Ali Bhatti, 2019. "On the monetary measures of global liquidity," Financial Innovation, Springer;Southwestern University of Finance and Economics, vol. 5(1), pages 1-23, December.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    multilateral aggregation; Divisia monetary aggregates; ECB; EMU; Euro area; aggregation over countries; heterogeneous agents; distribution effects;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • E41 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Money and Interest Rates - - - Demand for Money
    • G12 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Asset Pricing; Trading Volume; Bond Interest Rates
    • C43 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods: Special Topics - - - Index Numbers and Aggregation
    • C22 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models; Diffusion Processes

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