Liberalising Trade in Textiles and Clothing: A Survey of Quantitative Studies
There is a considerable body of analysis available that aims to quantify the economic and trade effects of textile and clothing market liberalisation. A number of analysts at national and international institutions have provided their assessments. Different tools and approaches have thereby been used to evaluate the impacts of textile trade reform at the regional or global level. Given the economic importance of the textile and clothing sector in some OECD and non-OECD countries and the resulting economy-wide repercussions that changes in the scale and pattern of textile production will tend to trigger, analysis using general equilibrium models has been dominant. The modelling results consistently indicate considerable shifts in textiles and clothing production and trade as the Agreement on Textiles and Clothing (ATC) is implemented. There is pressure for a large-scale reallocation of resources, with production of textiles and clothing expanding in Asian and other developing countries. In parallel, textiles and clothing production in industrialised countries is expected to contract significantly, while imports of textiles and clothing from developing countries increase. Concerning further regional integration, which has played a major role in textiles and clothing trade during the 1990s, the modelling results predict welfare benefits for the participating countries, while trade diversion is expected to adversely affect outsiders. All the reviewed studies foresee increases in global welfare as a result of ATC reform. But the estimates of welfare gains show considerable variation, with expected annual global benefits ranging from $6.5 billion to $324 billion. Some studies predict ATC reform to account for up to two-thirds of all gains from the Uruguay Round, while others put the contribution of textile and clothing liberalisation at merely 5 per cent. There is similar discrepancy with respect to the distribution of welfare gains. A number of analysts see developing countries as the main beneficiaries of ATC reform, while others expect them in the aggregate to lose from the policy changes. There is also variation in the direction and magnitude of expected welfare impacts at the level of many individual developing countries.
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Francois, Joseph & McDonald, Brad & Nordström, Håkan, 1994. "The Uruguay Round: A Global General Equilibrium Assessment," CEPR Discussion Papers 1067, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Nguyen, T. & Perroni, C. & Wigle, R., 1993. "An Evaluation of the Final Act of the Uruguay Round," Working Papers 93003, Wilfrid Laurier University, Department of Economics.
- Terrie L. Walmsley & Thomas W. Hertel, 2001.
"China's Accession to the WTO: Timing is Everything,"
The World Economy,
Wiley Blackwell, vol. 24(8), pages 1019-1049, 09.
- Hertel, Thomas W. & Terrie Walmsley, 2000. "China's Accession to the WTO: Timing is Everything," GTAP Working Papers 403, Center for Global Trade Analysis, Department of Agricultural Economics, Purdue University.
- Ianchovichina, Elena, 2001.
"Trade Liberalization in China’s Accession to WTO,"
Journal of Economic Integration,
Center for Economic Integration, Sejong University, vol. 16, pages 421-445.
- Ianchovichina, Elena & Martin, Will, 2001. "Trade liberalization in China's accession to the World Trade Organization," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2623, The World Bank.
- Trela, Irene & Whalley, John, 1995.
"Internal Quota-Allocation Schemes and the Costs of the MFA,"
Review of International Economics,
Wiley Blackwell, vol. 3(3), pages 284-306, October.
- Irene Trela & John Whalley, 1991. "Internal Quota Allocation Schemes and the Costs of the MFA," NBER Working Papers 3627, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Kenneth Hanson & Kenneth Reinert, 1997. "The Distributional Effects of U.S. Textile and Apparel Protection," International Economic Journal, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 11(3), pages 1-12.
- Jaime de Melo & David Tarr, 2014.
"Welfare Costs Of U.S. Quotas In Textiles, Steel And Autos,"
World Scientific Book Chapters,
in: APPLIED TRADE POLICY MODELING IN 16 COUNTRIES Insights and Impacts from World Bank CGE Based Projects, chapter 2, pages 39-47
World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
- de Melo, Jaime & Tarr, David, 1990. "Welfare Costs of U.S. Quotas in Textiles, Steel and Autos," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 72(3), pages 489-497, August.
- Jaime de Melo & David Tarr, 2015. "Welfare Costs Of U.S. Quotas In Textiles, Steel And Autos," World Scientific Book Chapters, in: Modeling Developing Countries' Policies in General Equilibrium, chapter 21, pages 451-459 World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
- de Melo, Jaime & Tarr, David, 1988. "Welfare costs of U.S. quotas on textiles, steel, and autos," Policy Research Working Paper Series 83, The World Bank.
- de Melo, Jaime & Tarr, David, 1990. "Welfare Costs of US Quotas in Textiles, Steel and Autos," CEPR Discussion Papers 401, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Kenneth A. Reinert, 1993. "Textile and Apparel Protection in the United States: A General Equilibrium Analysis," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 16(3), pages 359-376, 05.
- Martin, W. & Winters, L.A., 1995. "The Uruguay Round and the Developing Countries," World Bank - Discussion Papers 307, World Bank.
- Goto, Junichi, 1989. "The Multifibre Arrangement and Its Effects on Developing Countries," World Bank Research Observer, World Bank Group, vol. 4(2), pages 203-227, July.
- Winters, L. Alan, 1994. "The Liberalization of European Steel Trade," CEPR Discussion Papers 1002, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Haaland, Jan I., 1994. "The Uruguay Round and Trade in Manufactures and Services. General Equilibrium Simulations of Production, Trade and Welfare Effects of Liberalization," CEPR Discussion Papers 1008, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Spinanger, Dean, 1991. "Experiences with liberalization policies : The case of textiles," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 35(2-3), pages 543-551, April.
- Trela, I. & Whalley, J., 1988.
"Do Developing Countries Lose From The Mfa?,"
University of Western Ontario, The Centre for the Study of International Economic Relations Working Papers
8804c, University of Western Ontario, The Centre for the Study of International Economic Relations.
- Nguyen, Trien & Perroni, Carlo & Wigle, Randall, 1993. "An Evaluation of the Draft Final Act of the Uruguay Round," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 103(421), pages 1540-1549, November.
- Harrison, Glenn W & Rutherford, Thomas F & Tarr, David G, 1997. "Quantifying the Uruguay Round," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 107(444), pages 1405-1430, September.
- Kathuria, Sanjay & Martin, Will & Bhardwaj, Anjali, 2001. "Implications for South Asian countries for abolishing the Multifibre Arrangement," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2721, The World Bank.
- Michel Fouquin & Pascal Morand & Richard Avisse & Gildas Minvielle & Philippe Dumont, 2002. "Mondialisation et régionalisation : le cas des industries du textile et de l'habillement," Working Papers 2002-08, CEPII research center.
- Aziz Elbehri & Thomas Hertel & Will Martin, 2003. "Estimating the Impact of WTO and Domestic Reforms on the Indian Cotton and Textile Sectors: a General-Equilibrium Approach," Review of Development Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 7(3), pages 343-359, 08.
- Joseph F. Francois & Hans H. Glismann & Dean Spinanger, 2000.
"The Cost of EU Trade Protection in Textiles and Clothing,"
Kiel Working Papers
997, Kiel Institute for the World Economy.
- Spinanger, Dean & Francois, Joseph F. & Glismann, Hans H., 2000. "The Cost of EU Trade Protection in Textiles and Clothing," Kiel Working Papers 997, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW).
- Bach, Christian Friis, et al, 2000. "Market Growth, Structural Change, and the Gains from the Uruguay Round," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 8(2), pages 295-310, May.
- Trela, Irene & Whalley, John, 1990. "Global Effects of Developed Country Trade Restrictions on Textiles and Apparel," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 100(403), pages 1190-1205, December.
- Diao, Xinshen & Somwaru, Agapi, 2001. "Impact of the MFA phase-out on the world economy," TMD discussion papers 79, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wpa:wuwpit:0401007. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (EconWPA)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.