IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/
MyIDEAS: Login to save this paper or follow this series

Reducing distortions to agricultural incentives : progress, pitfalls, and prospects

  • Anderson, Kym

Most of the world's poorest people depend on farming for their livelihood. Earnings from farming in low-income countries are depressed partly due to a pro-urban bias in own-country policies, and partly because richer countries (including some developing countries) favor their farmers with import barriers and subsidies. Both sets of policies reduce national and global economic growth and add to inequality and poverty in developing countries. Acknowledgement of that since the 1980s has given rise to greater pressures for reform, both internal and external. Over the past two decades numerous developing country governments have reduced their sectoral and trade policy distortions, while many high-income countries continue with protectionist policies that harm developing country exports of farm products. Recent research suggests that the agricultural protectionist policies of high-income countries reduce welfare in many developing countries. Most of those studies also suggest that full global liberalization of merchandise trade would raise value added in agriculture in developing country regions, and that much of the benefit from global reform would come not just from reform in high-income countries but also from liberalization among developing countries, including in many cases own-country reform. These findings raise three key questions that are addressed in this paper: To what extent have the reforms of the past two decades succeeded in reducing distortions to agricultural incentives? Do current policy distortions still discriminate against farmers in low-income countries? And what are the prospects for further reform in the next decade or so?

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

File URL: http://www-wds.worldbank.org/servlet/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2006/12/12/000016406_20061212132020/Rendered/PDF/wps4092.pdf
Download Restriction: no

Paper provided by The World Bank in its series Policy Research Working Paper Series with number 4092.

as
in new window

Length:
Date of creation: 01 Dec 2006
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:4092
Contact details of provider: Postal: 1818 H Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20433
Phone: (202) 477-1234
Web page: http://www.worldbank.org/
Email:


More information through EDIRC

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

as in new window
  1. Kym Anderson & Lee Ann Jacskon, 2004. "Some Implications of GM Food Technology Policies for Sub-Saharan Africa," Centre for International Economic Studies Working Papers 2004-09, University of Adelaide, Centre for International Economic Studies.
  2. kishore gawande & pravin krishna, 2005. "The Political Economy of Trade Policy: Empirical Approaches," International Trade 0503003, EconWPA.
  3. Henning Tarp Jensen & Sherman Robinson & Finn Tarp, 2004. "General Equilibrium Measures of Agricultural Policy Bias in Fifteen Developing Countries," Discussion Papers 04-25, University of Copenhagen. Department of Economics.
  4. Kym Anderson & Will Martin & Dominique van der Mensbrugghe, 2006. "Distortions to World Trade: Impacts on Agricultural Markets and Farm Incomes," Review of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 28(2), pages 168-194.
  5. Krueger, Anne O & Schiff, Maurice & Valdes, Alberto, 1988. "Agricultural Incentives in Developing Countries: Measuring the Effect of Sectoral and Economywide Policies," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 2(3), pages 255-71, September.
  6. Jesper Jensen & Thomas Rutherford & David Tarr, 2007. "The Impact of Liberalizing Barriers to Foreign Direct Investment in Services: The Case of Russian Accession to the World Trade Organization," Review of Development Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 11(3), pages 482-506, 08.
  7. Sourafel Girma & David Greenaway & Richard Kneller, 2004. "Does Exporting Increase Productivity? A Microeconometric Analysis of Matched Firms," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 12(5), pages 855-866, November.
  8. Kee, Hiau Looi & Nicita, Alessandro & Olarreaga, Marcelo, 2006. "Estimating trade restrictiveness indices," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3840, The World Bank.
  9. Per Pinstrup-Andersen, 2002. "Food and Agricultural Policy for a Globalizing World: Preparing for the Future," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 84(5), pages 1201-1214.
  10. Blalock, Garrick & Gertler, Paul J., 2004. "Learning from exporting revisited in a less developed setting," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 75(2), pages 397-416, December.
  11. Mark J. Melitz, 2002. "The Impact of Trade on Intra-Industry Reallocations and Aggregate Industry Productivity," NBER Working Papers 8881, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  12. Francois, Joseph & Martin, Will, 2002. "Commercial Policy Variability, Bindings and Market Access," CEPR Discussion Papers 3294, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  13. Hayami, Yujiro, 2007. "An Emerging Agricultural Problem in High-Performing Asian Economies," Agricultural Distortions Working Paper 48635, World Bank.
  14. Rodrik, Dani, 1995. "Political economy of trade policy," Handbook of International Economics, in: G. M. Grossman & K. Rogoff (ed.), Handbook of International Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 28, pages 1457-1494 Elsevier.
  15. Townsend, R.F., 1999. "Agriculture Incentives in Sub-Saharan Africa. Policy Challanges," Papers 444, World Bank - Technical Papers.
  16. Valdes, A., 2000. "Agricultural Support Policies in Transition Economies," Papers 470, World Bank - Technical Papers.
  17. Anderson, Kym, 2004. "Setting the Trade Policy Agenda: What Roles for Economists?," Working Papers 14574, International Agricultural Trade Research Consortium.
  18. Walter P. Falcon & Rosamond L. Naylor, 2005. "Rethinking Food Security for the Twenty-First Century," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 87(5), pages 1113-1127.
  19. repec:cup:cbooks:9780521351058 is not listed on IDEAS
  20. Rainer Thiele, 2002. "The Bias Against Agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa: Has It Survived 20 Years of Structural Adjustment Programs?," Kiel Working Papers 1102, Kiel Institute for the World Economy.
  21. Stefan Tangermann, 2005. "Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Area Agricultural Policies and the Interests of Developing Countries," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 87(5), pages 1128-1144.
  22. Lopez, Ramon & Galinato, Gregmar I., 2007. "Should governments stop subsidies to private goods? Evidence from rural Latin America," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 91(5-6), pages 1071-1094, June.
  23. Anderson, Kym, 1993. "Lobbying Incentives and the Pattern of Protection in Rich and Poor Countries," CEPR Discussion Papers 789, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  24. Will Martin & Kym Anderson, 2006. "The Doha Agenda Negotiations on Agriculture: What Could They Deliver?," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 88(5), pages 1211-1218.
  25. Wiebelt, Manfred & Herrmann, Roland & Schenck, Patricia & Thiele, Rainer, 1992. "Discrimination against agriculture in developing countries?," Open Access Publications from Kiel Institute for the World Economy 458, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW).
  26. David Hummels & Peter J. Klenow, 2005. "The Variety and Quality of a Nation's Exports," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 95(3), pages 704-723, June.
  27. Gulati, Ashok & Narayanan, Sudha, 2003. "The Subsidy Syndrome in Indian Agriculture," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780195662061, March.
  28. Valdes, A, 1996. "Surveillance of Agricultural Price and Trade Policy in Latin America during Major Policy Reform," World Bank - Discussion Papers 349, World Bank.
  29. Isgut, Alberto & Fernandes, Ana, 2007. "Learning-by-Exporting Effects: Are They for Real?," MPRA Paper 3121, University Library of Munich, Germany.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:4092. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Roula I. Yazigi)

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.