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Who controls East Asian corporations ?

  • Claessens, Constantijn A.
  • Djankov, Simeon
  • Lang, Larry H. P.

The authors identify the ultimate ownership structure for 2,980 corporations in nine East Asian countries. They find that: A) More than half of those firms are controlled be a single shareholder. B) Smaller firms and older firms are more likely to be family-controlled. C) Patterns of controlling ownership stakes differ across countries. The concentration of control generally diminishes with higher economic and institutional development. D) In many countries control is enhanced though pyramid structures and deviations from one-share-one-vote rules. As a result, voting rights exceed cash-flow rights. E) Management is rarely separated from ownership control, and management in two thirds of the firms that are not widely held is related to management of the controlling shareholder. F) In some countries, wealth is very concentrated and links between government andbusiness are extensive, so the legal system has probably been influenced by the prevailing ownership structure.

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Paper provided by The World Bank in its series Policy Research Working Paper Series with number 2054.

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Date of creation: 28 Feb 1999
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:2054
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  1. Demsetz, Harold, 1986. "Corporate Control, Insider Trading, and Rates of Return," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 76(2), pages 313-16, May.
  2. Rafael La Porta & Florencio Lopez-de-Silanes & Andrei Shleifer, 1998. "Corporate Ownership Around the World," Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers 1840, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
  3. Kaplan, Steven N, 1994. "Top Executive Rewards and Firm Performance: A Comparison of Japan and the United States," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 102(3), pages 510-46, June.
  4. Rodrik, Dani, 1997. "The 'paradoxes' of the successful state," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 41(3-5), pages 411-442, April.
  5. Amsden, Alice H. & Singh, Ajit, 1994. "The optimal degree of competition and dynamic efficiency in Japan and Korea," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 38(3-4), pages 941-951, April.
  6. Rafael LaPorta & Florencio Lopez-de-Silanes & Andrei Shleifer & Robert W. Vishny, . "Law and Finance," Working Paper 19451, Harvard University OpenScholar.
  7. Masahiko Aoki, 2013. "Toward an Economic Model of the Japanese Firm," Chapters, in: Comparative Institutional Analysis, chapter 18, pages 315-341 Edward Elgar.
  8. Jensen, Michael C. & Meckling, William H., 1976. "Theory of the firm: Managerial behavior, agency costs and ownership structure," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 3(4), pages 305-360, October.
  9. Prowse, Stephen D, 1992. " The Structure of Corporate Ownership in Japan," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 47(3), pages 1121-40, July.
  10. Shleifer, Andrei & Vishny, Robert W., 1986. "Large Shareholders and Corporate Control," Scholarly Articles 3606237, Harvard University Department of Economics.
  11. Edita A. Tan, 1993. "Interlocking Directorates, Commercial Banks, Other Financial Institutions and Non-Financial Corporations," Philippine Review of Economics, University of the Philippines School of Economics and Philippine Economic Society, vol. 30(1), pages 1-50, June.
  12. Sato, Yuri, 1993. "The Salim Group in Indonesia: the development and behavior of the largest conglomerate in Southeast Asia," The Developing Economies, Institute of Developing Economies, Japan External Trade Organization(JETRO), vol. 31(4), pages 408-441, December.
  13. Raghuram G. Rajan & Luigi Zingales, 1998. "Which Capitalism? Lessons Form The East Asian Crisis," Journal of Applied Corporate Finance, Morgan Stanley, vol. 11(3), pages 40-48.
  14. Morck, Randall & Shleifer, Andrei & Vishny, Robert W., 1988. "Management ownership and market valuation : An empirical analysis," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 20(1-2), pages 293-315, January.
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