IDEAS home Printed from
MyIDEAS: Log in (now much improved!) to save this paper

Entrepreneurship Development and the Role of Economic Transition in Entrepreneurial Activities in China

  • Zhang, Ying



  • Duysters, Geert


    (Eindhoven University of Technology, Tilburg University, and UNU-MERIT)

This study aims to elaborate entrepreneurship development in China and the role of China's economic transition in entrepreneurial activities. Besides addressing China's institutional transition environment, which is argued as the necessary condition of entrepreneurship development and as the 'incubator' of three generations of entrepreneurs in China, the applied panel dataset was organized by collecting data from 31 provinces in China in recent 4 years. Our results show that China's economic development has a significant inversed U-shaped impact on entrepreneurship development in the transitional stage from efficient-driven to innovation-driven economy. Complementary conclusions in the recent transitional stage include that education resource and regional economic openness respectively has significantly positive impact on entrepreneurship. The interactive effect of education resources and economic openness was also found significantly positive but results associated with unemployment's impact present that unemployment executes negative impact insignificantly, which is consistent with the fact of China's entrepreneurship development is approaching to opportunity-oriented stage in recent years.

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

File URL:
Download Restriction: no

Paper provided by United Nations University - Maastricht Economic and Social Research Institute on Innovation and Technology (MERIT) in its series MERIT Working Papers with number 036.

in new window

Date of creation: 2010
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:unm:unumer:2010036
Contact details of provider: Postal:
P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht

Phone: (31) (0)43 3883875
Fax: (31) (0)43 3216518
Web page:

More information through EDIRC

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

as in new window
  1. Adriaan J. van Stel & David J. Storey, 2004. "The link between firm births and job creation: Is there a Upas Tree effect?," Papers on Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy 2004-33, Max Planck Institute of Economics, Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy Group.
  2. Hannu Tervo, 2006. "Regional unemployment, self-employment and family background," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 38(9), pages 1055-1062.
  3. Hongbin Cai & Yasuyuki Todo & Li-An Zhou, 2007. "Do Multinationals' R&D Activities Stimulate Indigenous Entrepreneurship? Evidence from China's "Silicon Valley"," NBER Working Papers 13618, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  4. Yao Li & John Whalley & Shunming Zhang & Xiliang Zhao, 2008. "The Higher Educational Transformation of China and Its Global Implications," NBER Working Papers 13849, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  5. Furman, Jeffrey L. & Porter, Michael E. & Stern, Scott, 2002. "The determinants of national innovative capacity," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 31(6), pages 899-933, August.
  6. P. Köllinger & M. Minniti, 2006. "Not for Lack of Trying: American Entrepreneurship in Black and White," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 27(1), pages 59-79, August.
  7. Boettke, Peter & Fink, Alexander, 2011. "Institutions first," Journal of Institutional Economics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 7(04), pages 499-504, December.
  8. Acs,Zoltan J. & Armington,Catherine, 2011. "Entrepreneurship, Geography, and American Economic Growth," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9781107402539, November.
  9. Smallbone, David & Welter, Friederike, 2001. "The Distinctiveness of Entrepreneurship in Transition Economies," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 16(4), pages 249-62, June.
  10. Santiago-Rodriguez, Fernando, 2010. "Human resource management and learning for innovation: pharmaceuticals in Mexico," MERIT Working Papers 002, United Nations University - Maastricht Economic and Social Research Institute on Innovation and Technology (MERIT).
  11. Zhang, Ying & Filippov, Sergey, 2009. "Internationalization of Chinese firms in Europe," MERIT Working Papers 041, United Nations University - Maastricht Economic and Social Research Institute on Innovation and Technology (MERIT).
  12. Marco Cagetti & Mariacristina De Nardi, 2003. "Entrepreneurship, frictions, and wealth," Staff Report 322, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis.
  13. John McMillan & Christopher Woodruff, 1998. "Interfirm Relationships and Informal Credit in Vietnam," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series 132, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
  14. André van Stel & Roy Thurik & David Audretsch & Martin Carree, 2007. "Does Self-Employment Reduce Unemployment?," Scales Research Reports H200709, EIM Business and Policy Research.
  15. Hausman, Jerry, 2015. "Specification tests in econometrics," Applied Econometrics, Publishing House "SINERGIA PRESS", vol. 38(2), pages 112-134.
  16. Motohashi, Kazuyuki, 2005. "University-industry collaborations in Japan: The role of new technology-based firms in transforming the National Innovation System," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(5), pages 583-594, June.
  17. Edward P. Lazear, 2004. "Balanced Skills and Entrepreneurship," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 94(2), pages 208-211, May.
  18. Jonathan Levie & Erkko Autio, 2008. "A theoretical grounding and test of the GEM model," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 31(3), pages 235-263, October.
  19. Zon, Adriaan van & Mupela, Evans, 2010. "Endogenous Economic Growth through Connectivity," MERIT Working Papers 001, United Nations University - Maastricht Economic and Social Research Institute on Innovation and Technology (MERIT).
  20. Richard B. Freeman, 2006. "Does Globalization of the Scientific/Engineering Workforce Threaten U.S. Economic Leadership?," NBER Chapters, in: Innovation Policy and the Economy, Volume 6, pages 123-158 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  21. John McMillan & Christopher Woodruff, 2002. "The Central Role of Entrepreneurs in Transition Economies," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 16(3), pages 153-170, Summer.
  22. Furman, Jeffrey L. & Hayes, Richard, 2004. "Catching up or standing still?: National innovative productivity among 'follower' countries, 1978-1999," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 33(9), pages 1329-1354, November.
  23. Israel M. Kirzner, 1997. "Entrepreneurial Discovery and the Competitive Market Process: An Austrian Approach," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 35(1), pages 60-85, March.
  24. Fritsch, Michael, 2004. "Entrepreneurship, entry and performance of new business compared in two growth regimes: East and West Germany," Freiberg Working Papers 2004,09, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration.
  25. Parker,Simon C., 2006. "The Economics of Self-Employment and Entrepreneurship," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521030632, November.
  26. Kazuyuki Motohashi & Xiao Yun, 2005. "China's Innovation System Reform and Growing Industry and Science Linkages," Discussion papers 05011, Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI).
  27. Johansson, Edvard, 2000. " Self-Employment and Liquidity Constraints: Evidence from Finland," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 102(1), pages 123-34, March.
  28. Claudio Michelacci, 2003. "Low Returns in R&D Due to the Lack of Entrepreneurial Skills," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 113(484), pages 207-225, January.
  29. Simon Johnson & John McMillan & Christopher Woodruff, 2002. "Property Rights and Finance," NBER Working Papers 8852, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  30. Yingyi Qian, 2000. "The Process of China's Market Transition (1978-1998): The Evolutionary, Historical, and Comparative Perspectives," Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics (JITE), Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen, vol. 156(1), pages 151-, March.
  31. Wagner, Joachim, 2002. "Testing Lazear’s Jack-of-All-Trades View of Entrepreneurship with German Micro Data," IZA Discussion Papers 592, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  32. Geert Duysters & Jojo Jacob & Charmianne Lemmens & Yu Jintian, 2009. "Internationalization and technological catching up of emerging multinationals: a comparative case study of China's Haier group," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 18(2), pages 325-349, April.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:unm:unumer:2010036. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Ad Notten)

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.