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Identifying Fiscal Space:Options for Social and Economic Development for Children and Poor Households in 184 Countries

Author

Listed:
  • Isabel Ortiz
  • Jingqing Chai
  • Matthew Cummins

    (Division of Policy and Practice,UNICEF)

Abstract

It is often argued that social and economic investments that benefit children and poor households are not affordable or that government expenditure cuts are inevitable during adjustment periods. But there are alternatives, even in the poorest countries. This working paper offers an array of options that can be explored to expand fiscal space. These include: (i) re-allocating public expenditures, (ii) increasing tax revenues, (iii) lobbying for increased aid and transfers, (iv) tapping into fiscal and foreign exchange reserves, (v) borrowing and restructuring existing debt, and /or (vi) adpoting a more accommodative macroeconomic framework. To serve as a general advocacy resource, the annex provides a summary of the latest fiscal space indicators for 184 countries.

Suggested Citation

  • Isabel Ortiz & Jingqing Chai & Matthew Cummins, 2011. "Identifying Fiscal Space:Options for Social and Economic Development for Children and Poor Households in 184 Countries," Working papers 1108, UNICEF,Division of Policy and Strategy.
  • Handle: RePEc:uce:wpaper:1108
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    File URL: http://www.unicef.org/socialpolicy/files/Fiscal_Space_-_REVISED_Dec_2011.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Gylfason, Thorvaldur & Herbertsson, Tryggvi Thor, 2001. "Does inflation matter for growth?," Japan and the World Economy, Elsevier, vol. 13(4), pages 405-428, December.
    2. Max Gillman & Mark N. Harris & László Mátyás, 2004. "Inflation and growth: Explaining a negative effect," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 29(1), pages 149-167, January.
    3. Burdekin, Richard C.K. & Denzau, Arthur T. & Keil, Manfred W. & Sitthiyot, Thitithep & Willett, Thomas D., 2004. "When does inflation hurt economic growth? Different nonlinearities for different economies," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 26(3), pages 519-532, September.
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    5. Dang, Hai-Anh & Knack, Stephen & Rogers, F. Halsey, 2013. "International aid and financial crises in donor countries," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 32(C), pages 232-250.
    6. Isabel Ortiz & Jingqing Chai & Matthew Cummins, 2011. "Escalating Food Prices: The threat to poor households and policies to safeguard a Recovery for All," Working papers 1101, UNICEF,Division of Policy and Strategy.
    7. Ugo Panizza, 2008. "Domestic And External Public Debt In Developing Countries," UNCTAD Discussion Papers 188, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development.
    8. Kevin Gallagher & Roberto Porzecanski, 2009. "China and the Latin America Commodities Boom: A Critical Assessment," Working Papers wp192, Political Economy Research Institute, University of Massachusetts at Amherst.
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    14. Isabel Ortiz & Matthew Cummins, 2011. "Global Inequality: Beyond the Bottom Billion – A Rapid Review of Income Distribution in 141 Countries," Working papers 1105, UNICEF,Division of Policy and Strategy.
    15. Isabel Ortiz & Matthew Cummins, 2011. "Austerity Measures Threaten Children and Poor Households: Recent Evidence in Public Expenditures from 128 Developing Countries," Working papers 1107, UNICEF,Division of Policy and Strategy.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Isabel Ortiz & Matthew Cummins, 2012. "DESIGUALDAD GLOBAL:La distribución del ingreso en 141 países," Working papers 1104, UNICEF,Division of Policy and Strategy.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    fiscal space; fiscal consolidation; public expenditures; social spending; crisis recovery; development policy; equity; tax revenues; foreign reserves; official development assistance; government borrowing; debt; expansionary fiscal and monetary policy;

    JEL classification:

    • F35 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - Foreign Aid
    • H12 - Public Economics - - Structure and Scope of Government - - - Crisis Management
    • H2 - Public Economics - - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue
    • H5 - Public Economics - - National Government Expenditures and Related Policies
    • H6 - Public Economics - - National Budget, Deficit, and Debt
    • H62 - Public Economics - - National Budget, Deficit, and Debt - - - Deficit; Surplus
    • H63 - Public Economics - - National Budget, Deficit, and Debt - - - Debt; Debt Management; Sovereign Debt
    • I38 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty - - - Government Programs; Provision and Effects of Welfare Programs
    • O2 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Development Planning and Policy
    • O23 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Development Planning and Policy - - - Fiscal and Monetary Policy in Development

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