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Identifying Fiscal Space:Options for Social and Economic Development for Children and Poor Households in 184 Countries

  • Isabel Ortiz
  • Jingqing Chai
  • Matthew Cummins

    (Division of Policy and Practice,UNICEF)

It is often argued that social and economic investments that benefit children and poor households are not affordable or that government expenditure cuts are inevitable during adjustment periods. But there are alternatives, even in the poorest countries. This working paper offers an array of options that can be explored to expand fiscal space. These include: (i) re-allocating public expenditures, (ii) increasing tax revenues, (iii) lobbying for increased aid and transfers, (iv) tapping into fiscal and foreign exchange reserves, (v) borrowing and restructuring existing debt, and /or (vi) adpoting a more accommodative macroeconomic framework. To serve as a general advocacy resource, the annex provides a summary of the latest fiscal space indicators for 184 countries.

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File URL: http://www.unicef.org/socialpolicy/files/Fiscal_Space_-_REVISED_Dec_2011.pdf
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Paper provided by UNICEF,Division of Policy and Strategy in its series Working papers with number 1108.

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Length: 66 pages
Date of creation: 2011
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:uce:wpaper:1108
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  1. Gylfason, Thorvaldur & Herbertsson, Tryggvi Thor, 2001. "Does inflation matter for growth?," Japan and the World Economy, Elsevier, vol. 13(4), pages 405-428, December.
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  4. Burdekin, Richard C.K. & Denzau, Arthur T. & Keil, Manfred W. & Sitthiyot, Thitithep & Willett, Thomas D., 2004. "When does inflation hurt economic growth? Different nonlinearities for different economies," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 26(3), pages 519-532, September.
  5. Emmanuel Frot & Javier Santiso, 2009. "Herding in Aid Allocation," OECD Development Centre Working Papers 279, OECD Publishing.
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  7. Raphael A. Espinoza & Ananthakrishnan Prasad & H. L. Leon, 2010. "Estimating the Inflation-Growth Nexus; A Smooth Transition Model," IMF Working Papers 10/76, International Monetary Fund.
  8. Dilip Ratha, 2006. "Leveraging remittances for development," Proceedings, Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas, pages 173-185.
  9. Max Gillman & Mark N. Harris & László Mátyás, 2004. "Inflation and growth: Explaining a negative effect," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 29(1), pages 149-167, January.
  10. Dang, Hai-Anh & Knack, Stephen & Rogers, F. Halsey, 2013. "International aid and financial crises in donor countries," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 32(C), pages 232-250.
  11. Vaona, A. & Schiavo, S., 2007. "Nonparametric and semiparametric evidence on the long-run effects of inflation on growth," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 94(3), pages 452-458, March.
  12. Isabel Ortiz & Matthew Cummins, 2011. "Austerity Measures Threaten Children and Poor Households: Recent Evidence in Public Expenditures from 128 Developing Countries," Working papers 1107, UNICEF,Division of Policy and Strategy.
  13. Ardeshir Sepehri & Saeed Moshiri, 2004. "Inflation-Growth Profiles Across Countries: Evidence from Developing and Developed Countries," International Review of Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 18(2), pages 191-207.
  14. Ephraim W. Chirwa & Montfort Mlachila & Yohane Anthony Khamfula, 2006. "Donor Herding and Domestic Debt Crisis," IMF Working Papers 06/109, International Monetary Fund.
  15. Isabel Ortiz & Jingqing Chai & Matthew Cummins, 2011. "Escalating Food Prices: The threat to poor households and policies to safeguard a Recovery for All," Working papers 1101, UNICEF,Division of Policy and Strategy.
  16. Stephanie Kremer & Alexander Bick & Dieter Nautz, 2009. "Inflation and Growth: New Evidence From a Dynamic Panel Threshold Analysis," SFB 649 Discussion Papers SFB649DP2009-036, Sonderforschungsbereich 649, Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany.
  17. Isabel Ortiz & Matthew Cummins, 2011. "Global Inequality: Beyond the Bottom Billion – A Rapid Review of Income Distribution in 141 Countries," Working papers 1105, UNICEF,Division of Policy and Strategy.
  18. Isabel Ortiz, 2007. "Social Policy," Policy Notes 6, United Nations, Department of Economics and Social Affairs.
  19. Bick, Alexander, 2010. "Threshold effects of inflation on economic growth in developing countries," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 108(2), pages 126-129, August.
  20. Ugo Panizza, 2008. "Domestic And External Public Debt In Developing Countries," UNCTAD Discussion Papers 188, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development.
  21. Yohane Khamfula & Montfort Mlachila & Ephraim Chirwa, 2007. "Donor herding and domestic debt crisis," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 14(4), pages 299-302.
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