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Environmental Kuznets curve for carbon dioxide emissions: lack of robustness to heterogeneity?

  • Jobert, Thomas

    (Groupe de REcherche en Droit, Économie, Gestion)

  • Karanfil, Fatih

    ()

    (Galatasaray University Economic Research Center)

  • Tykhonenko, Anna

    (Groupe de REcherche en Droit, Économie, Gestion)

This paper focuses solely on the energy consumption, carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and economic growth nexus applying the iterative Bayesian shrinkage procedure. The environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis is tested using this method for the first time in this literature and the results obtained suggest that: first, the EKC hypothesis is rejected for 49 out of the 51 countries considered when heterogeneity in countries' energy efficiencies and cross-country differences in the CO2 emissions trajectories are accounted for; second, a classification of the results with respect to countries’ development levels reveals that an overall inverted U-shape curve is due to the fact that increase in gross domestic product (GDP) in the high-income countries decreases emissions, while in the low-income countries it increases emissions.

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Paper provided by Galatasaray University Economic Research Center in its series GIAM Working Papers with number 12-7.

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Length: 26 pages
Date of creation: 12 Dec 2012
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:ris:giamwp:2012_007
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  1. Wagner, Martin, 2008. "The carbon Kuznets curve: A cloudy picture emitted by bad econometrics?," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(3), pages 388-408, August.
  2. Stern, David I., 2004. "The Rise and Fall of the Environmental Kuznets Curve," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 32(8), pages 1419-1439, August.
  3. Susmita Dasgupta & Benoit Laplante & Hua Wang & David Wheeler, 2002. "Confronting the Environmental Kuznets Curve," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 16(1), pages 147-168, Winter.
  4. Stern, David I., 2010. "Between estimates of the emissions-income elasticity," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 69(11), pages 2173-2182, September.
  5. Grossman, Gene & Krueger, Alan B, 1992. "Environmental Impacts of a North American Free Trade Agreement," CEPR Discussion Papers 644, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  6. Apergis, Nicholas & Payne, James E., 2010. "The emissions, energy consumption, and growth nexus: Evidence from the commonwealth of independent states," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(1), pages 650-655, January.
  7. Dinda, Soumyananda, 2004. "Environmental Kuznets Curve Hypothesis: A Survey," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 49(4), pages 431-455, August.
  8. Jobert, Thomas & Karanfil, Fatih & Tykhonenko, Anna, 2010. "Convergence of per capita carbon dioxide emissions in the EU: Legend or reality?," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(6), pages 1364-1373, November.
  9. Im, Kyung So & Pesaran, M. Hashem & Shin, Yongcheol, 2003. "Testing for unit roots in heterogeneous panels," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 115(1), pages 53-74, July.
  10. Luzzati, T. & Orsini, M., 2009. "Investigating the energy-environmental Kuznets curve," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 34(3), pages 291-300.
  11. Maddala, G S, et al, 1997. "Estimation of Short-Run and Long-Run Elasticities of Energy Demand from Panel Data Using Shrinkage Estimators," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 15(1), pages 90-100, January.
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